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Help »   Manual »   Introduction 


This is the manual for Hattrick. For a quicker introduction to the game go to the beginners' guide.

Hattrick is a game where you get to lead a virtual football team to glory, in competition with other participants from all over the world.

Hattrick is a simple game, it's easy to grasp the basics. You can play Hattrick even if you just log in once or twice a week (but we hope to see you more often). The challenge is not to beat the game, the challenge lies within the competition with the other participants. While competing, many participants become friends, making Hattrick also a social game.

Your overall tasks

You perform the duties of both manager and club owner. You plan tactics and strategy, decide what to train and select which players that should play. You buy and sell players, invest in stadium improvements and much more. To be successful a good piece of advice is to form a good strategy and a long term plan. Success and glory will not come for free, after all.

Your new team

When you take charge of your team it has just got a vacant slot in any of the two lowest divisions in the Hattrick series system. To start your climb upwards you got a squad of players (some might be talented and some might not…), a stadium and some money to your aid. Now it's time for you to show your magic.

Don't worry about second thoughts when it comes to your team name. You can always change your team name in between seasons, but it will cost you 10 000 US$ as match kits and marketing material etc. must be changed. You will also lose 3% of your fan club members, as some hardcore fans will not forgive you for abandoning the old name.

Region and weather

Your team belongs to region, a region which you probably have a relation to. Regions are there so you can check out other people from the same area as you. Another important function is that each region has its own weather. No regions have better weather than others, all regions are equally good so you don't have to worry about making a bad choice.

Weather affects a couple of things, but most importantly attendance (less people will watch your games when it's raining) and players performance. At the "Region" page you can see what the weather is like today and a weather forecast for tomorrow. If the sun shines today, it's more likely (compared to other weather types) that it also shines tomorrow, so weather isn't completely random.

If you want, you can change region in the season break. It will however cost you 10 000 US$ and 3% of your fans will leave your fan club.

Our best piece of advice

The best piece of advice we can give you is to read this manual. You don't need to read everything at once, just reading the first chapters to start with will give you a good clue how to play the game. If there is any other advice it would be to ask any question you may have in our forums. There is actually a forum designed just for questions.

There is only one thing we insist on: to give you and everyone else the best Hattrick experience there are some very simple rules of conduct to follow which you can find in our house rules.

Players: Skills

Each player has 8 basic skills, while there are also some additional factors affecting their performance in different situations. Let's have a rundown on the various skills first:
Stamina: Decides how much of his ability to perform a player loses during the course of the match.
Playmaking: The ability to control the ball and turn it into scoring opportunities.
Scoring: The ball is supposed to go into the net.
Winger: The ability to finish off scoring opportunities by advancing down the sides
Goalkeeping: The ball should not make it into your own net.
Passing: Players who know how to play the decisive pass are a great help for the team's attack.
Defending: The ability to stop opponent attacks.
Set pieces: The outcome of your free kicks and penalties depends on how skilled your set pieces taker is.

How good is your player?

In real life you say a football player is a "quite OK winger" or a "really good defender" when you see him play. In Hattrick, we do the same to describe how good players are. We use denominations (and not only for players), and for players' skills the scale goes from non-existent to divine. You can see the full denomination scales in our appendix.

Different players need different skills

All players don't need to be good in all skills, but stamina is important for everyone.  Sometimes it is good enough if a player is good in just one skill (other than stamina), but you will get the most out of your player if he is good in several skills.  Which skills (apart from stamina) a player benefits from depends on the position he will play:


Goalkeeping is needless to say important for goalkeepers. They also make use out of being good defenders, whilst set pieces helps to defend against free kicks and penalties.

Central defenders:

Defenders should naturally have a lot of defending. Playmaking is also beneficial, and their passing skill really makes a difference when counter-attacking.

Wing backs:

Defending is most important, but they also benefit a lot from being good wingers. They contribute a little with their playmaking skill, and passing helps when counter-attacking.

Inner Midfielders:

Having good playmakers in the inner midfield positions is a key ingredient for most successful teams. They also use their passing and defending skills a lot and a fair amount of scoring.


Naturally profit from being good wingers, but playmaking is also important. In addition, they also use both their passing and defending skill.


Their number one task is to score goals, making scoring their number one skill. Passing is also valuable, and so is winger and playmaking.

Changes in skills

The skills slowly change over time. All skills can be improved by training as long as the player lives, but as players get older they will also start losing a little of their skills. Everything about changes in skills is described in the chapter about training.

Players: Other attributes


You can see players' exact age on the player page. One Hattrick year is 112 days, which means all players are a certain age and 0-111 days.


All players have a personality. They can be nice or nasty, leaders or loners, temperamental or calm. Right now the personality does not affect much in the game, but it's for example wise to appoint a team captain with good leader abilities. More info about how personality affects the game is found in the psychology chapter.


Players who have played many and important matches become more experienced, and this experience will help them in future games in various ways. Being experienced can influence special events to score or concede goals, and help teams avoid disorganisation, among other things. We track experience as a separate value, one which is not related to the skills of a player. Every match played, and every type of match played, has a different effect on how quickly a player accumulated experience. In total, a player needs about 100 experience points to reach a new level of experience. The points earned for each match type are presented in the following table.

Match Type Experience Points
League match 3.5
Qualification match 7
Main Cup match 7
Secondary Cup match 1.75
Friendly match 0.35
International friendly 0.7
HT Masters match 17.5
Youth League match 3.5
Youth Friendly match 0.35
(Old) World Cup match 35
(Old) World Cup finals match 70
(Old) National Team friendly 7
World Cup match 28
World Cup (Semi and Final) 56
Continental Championships 14
Continental Championships (Quarter, Semi and Final) 21
Nations Cup 7
Nations Cup (Knockout) 14
National Team friendly 3.5


Players with high loyalty to the club perform better on the pitch. Loyalty increases with time spent at the club.

There are two types of loyalty:

Player loyalty bonus

For each consecutive day you have a player in your team, he will get a little bit more attached and loyal to your team. And the more attached and loyal he gets, the better he will play.

Loyalty is gained faster in the beginning, then slower and slower over time. Maximum loyalty is reached after three seasons, but the halfway point is reached after 12 weeks.

Maximum bonus: +1 skill level on all skills (stamina excluded)

Example: Tommy Wright is a solid playmaker with passable defending, and he has max (divine) loyalty. He will then perform as if he was an excellent playmaker with solid defending (and this will also be reflected in his star rating).

When a player reaches divine loyalty he gets the full bonus. Your youth players start with divine loyalty.

Please note that a player loses his loyalty to your club if you sell him to another club. So if you later buy him back, you have to build up his loyalty from scratch again.

Mother club bonus

Players that play for their mother club, such as your youth players, and have done so through their whole career always give a little bit extra on the pitch, as they hold a special place for the club in their hearts.

Bonus: +0.5 skill level on all skills (stamina excluded).

Players that have been playing for their mother club their whole career are indicated with a heart icon on their player page. Please note that any youth players sold and then re-bought will not get this bonus.

Gaining both bonuses

It is perfectly possible for a player to get both bonuses. So when you promote a youth player (it naturally doesn't matter which youth system you use) to your senior squad, he will get a 1.5 skill level bonus on all skills (excluding stamina) until you sell him.

Total Skill Index (TSI)

Total Skill Index is a measurement of how skilled a player is. TSI increases with training and can also increase (and decrease) with form.


The better form a player is in, the better he will perform. It's not about the physical context though, it has nothing to do with how well trained a player is. Form in Hattrick reflects a combination of aspects making it possible for, or preventing a player, from reaching his full potential – like for example how his private situation in life is at the moment.

On the player page you can see a player's "current form". It's the figure applied for matches. An "excellent" player in "wretched" form is usually worse off than a "passable" player in "solid" form for example.  Current form is negatively affected by the amount of stamina training in the team; the more stamina you train (percentage-wise) the more negative effect.

Additionally, there's a hidden "background form", which is used to compute where the player's form is heading. Each week, during training, the current form of every player will change, moving towards the hidden background form.  Current form is not changed immediately to the figure of background form. Instead it moves in steps over several weeks, though the further away from background form they are the larger the steps will be.

After current form has been changed during training, there is a chance that background form is changed for each player. Every player has the same individual chance of having his background form change, and there is nothing you can do to influence this chance.  However, when chance decrees that a player's background form will change, there are several factors that influence what the new background form will be:

  • If a player has participated in a match during the week. This is very important!
  • Training intensity – the harder you train, the better form in general
  • Your coach – the better skilled he is, the better form in general
  • Form Coach - a Form Coach is specialised in improving form.
  • Assistant coaches – Assistants also help improve form


About half of all players have a characteristic called "speciality", which has impact on matches. There are 5 different main specialities available for players: "Technical", "Quick", "Head", "Powerful" and "Unpredictable".  Every main speciality has a good and a bad side, explained in the Special Events chapter. Specialities can also be useful for certain tactic types as explained in the Tactics chapter.

Two rare specialties also exist: Resilient and Support. Players with the resilient speciality will find their injuries heal slightly faster than for other players, and might overcome a light injury during a match. Support players will try to help team-mates that are close by on the field. If successful, this makes the team-mates perform better, but it can also, if not successful, cause a drop in organisation for the whole team.


Sometimes players get injured. If this is the case, the injury, unless very slight, will put them on the treatment table for a couple of games. The risk of injuries increases as the team increases the intensity of training or the total number of Assistant Coaches levels on the staff.

Older players take a longer time to heal, and a medic can be hired to help players heal faster. The medic also helps reduce the risk for injuries. Players approaching their forties will have a hard time to recover at all though. Also remember that injury times are estimated in weeks - if your star forward has a week-long injury, it will take him up to one week to get fit again.

Yellow and red cards

Players may get booked or sent off during games, highly aggressive players (especially those with low honesty and lacking experience) more often than others. 2 bookings during a match will automatically lead to the player getting sent off. Getting sent off means that the player is suspended from the next competitive game.  A player will also be suspended for one match after accumulating 3 bookings from competitive games during a season. Bookings from league, cup, and qualifying games are all counted as the same. If a player has already been booked twice in league matches one season, and receives another booking in a following cup match, he will be suspended from the next competitive match, regardless of if it's a league match, cup match or qualifier.

You can check your players list for how many bookings your players have received before a match. A player who has accumulated 3 bookings or has been sent off in his last match will have a red card symbol on the players list, to show his suspension.  The suspended players booking slate is wiped when a competitive match has been played. Also, all player slates are wiped at the end of the season. A player can't get a suspension (or get his slate wiped) from a friendly game.

Lineup: The basics

As the manager for your team you decide how your team will play and which formation to use. Before each match you submit your decision – your match orders – through the order form found in the match list. Your match orders need to be submitted at least 20 minutes before the start of the game, but remember that the watch of the referee may not agree with yours, so try to avoid last-minute orders if you can. You can also make a match order a "standard setup" (which we recommend you to do for reasons of precaution). This means that Hattrick will assume this setup for future games but you can always adjust your setup according to the particular circumstances affecting matches ahead.

Starting lineup and substitutes

For each match you select your starting eleven players, your substitutes, your set pieces taker and your team captain. In the order form you choose which player goes where by drag and drop.

If one of your players gets injured, the substitute for that position will enter the pitch. If you don't have a substitute assigned to a certain position, or if the substitute is injured as well, one of the other substitutes will automatically get selected to play. If you don't have any able substitutes you'll have to continue the game with 10 players. If you're out of subs and your goalkeeper gets injured (or if you haven't named any), an outfield player will move to that spot. You can also set up conditional substitutions. See the substitutions chapter for more info.


Remember that you must start your league or cup games with at least 9 players to avoid a walkover, which also means the effect of training for the match will be lost.

If you fail to field at least 9 players in non-competitive or youth matches, then the boys from the neighbourhood will replace your team. Contrary to competitive matches, this will not have a negative impact on the training received by players who have been fielded in a competitive match that week.

Choosing team formation

You can play with any formation that can be created in the interface; your training page also includes the full formation list.

Worth knowing is that when more than one player plays in a central position (central defender, inner midfielder or forward); they will not be able to contribute to the team ratings with their full capacity. This contribution loss is also greater for three players than for two. The logic behind this is that as soon as more than one player plays in the same area, they start to rely on each other and thus aren't able to contribute with their whole capacity.

In short, a sole player in a central position contributes to 100%. Using two players in a central position means a contribution loss (affecting both), and using three means a bigger loss (affecting all three). This loss affects all skills of the player.

The size of the contribution loss is bigger for inner midfielders than for forwards, and bigger for forwards than for defenders. More exactly the loss for inner midfielders is around twice that of defenders, with forwards roughly in the middle of the two.

Tactics and team attitude

In the order form you can also set your team's tactic (if any) and the team's attitude for that particular match. The different tactic types are described in the Match: Tactics chapter and team attitude is explained in the Psychology chapter.

Man marking order

With man marking, you instruct one of your players to follow and try to neutralize a key player on the opposing team. Man marking is never without risks, so use it with care - but with the right player and the right timing, it can be an efficient way to even out the odds in a match.

The principle is that you order one of your players to shadow and obstruct a specific player on the opposing team. If the opponent player is on the field, this order triggers after 5 minutes and your player will contribute a lot less to your team than he would normally do. In specific, your player contributes 50% less if the opponent is close and 65% less if he is further away. The benefit for you is that, hopefully, the contribution of the target will also decrease. This depends on how efficient your player is as a man marker. The trick is, of course, to find the situations where man marking pays off and avoid the ones where it will not.

A player that is given man marking instructions can not be given other instructions: This means that giving a player man marking orders cancels out any order he has already received about going offensive, defensive, to the wing or to the middle.

You can only give one man marking order per match to any of your Defenders, Wingbacks and Inner Midfielders and only with a Forward, Winger or Inner Midfielder on the other team as a target. If the player targeted does not show up, or if he plays in a non-markable position, the order becomes void, but your player will still suffer 10% of his contribution. However, a man marking order that has not triggered at the start may become active later in the match, if the target is substituted into the game or if he changes into a markable position.

While a man-marking order is in effect, a player will not contribute with their skills to team tactics (such as Pressing or Counter-Attack). However, he will contribute to tactics with his skills if the man-marking order has not triggered, but only after the 10 % penalty mentioned above is considered.

The defending skill is what matters most for your Man Marker. It is compared to the highest skill of the target player. This check decides how big the penalty will be to the contribution of the target player. Powerful players get a large boost (10%) to their defending skill during man marking calculation, and players with no speciality get a smaller one (5%). For the targets, having the Technical speciality will give you a penalty on their highest skill (-8%) during the man marking calculation, whereas Unpredictable players get a boost (+8%). Form, stamina, experience, loyalty, homegrown, and health are important to both man markers and target players. Note that all these bonuses and penalties due to specialities are taken into account only to calculate the man marking effect, and are not considered for the ratings.

Any penalty for the marking player affects all skills, except Goalkeeping and Set pieces. Penalties to the target player also excludes Defending.

Individual orders

You can give all your outfield players on the pitch individual orders. You can for example order your inner midfielder to play "defensive". This means he's still an inner midfielder, but he concentrates more on the defensive side than normal, and less on attacking. There are four individual orders, see this table for full details and what they mean for each position. Also, you can ask a player to man mark a star player in the opposing team. More about it is explained on Man Marking section.
Position Tactics Effect
Wing back Offensive Somewhat more Winger, somewhat more Playmaking, less Defending
Defensive Somewhat more Defending, less Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Towards middle Much more Defending to the middle, less Defending to the side, much less Winger, somewhat more Playmaking
Central defender Offensive More Playmaking, much less Defending
Towards wing Much more Defending to the side, much less Defending in the middle, a certain amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Winger Offensive More Winger, somewhat more passing, less Defending, less Playmaking
Defensive Much more Defending, less Winger, less Playmaking, somewhat less Passing
Towards middle Somewhat more Playmaking, less Winger, somewhat more Defending in the middle, somewhat less Defending to the side, somewhat more Passing in the middle, less Passing to the side
Inner midfielder Offensive More Passing, much less Defending, somewhat less Playmaking, somewhat more Scoring
Defensive More Defending, less Passing, somewhat less Playmaking, somewhat less Scoring
Towards wing A nice amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking, somewhat more Passing and Defending on the side, somewhat less Passing/Defending in the middle, no Scoring
Forward Defensive Somewhat more Playmaking, more Passing (and even more Passing to the sides for technical forwards), much less Scoring, somewhat less Winger
Towards wing More Winger, much more Scoring and somewhat more Passing on the side, much less Scoring and somewhat less Passing in the middle, somewhat less Scoring, Winger and Passing on the other side, somewhat less Playmaking

Match: The basics

Finding the right lineup is one of your biggest challenges in Hattrick. In this and the other match chapters we will focus on how the players' skills come into play in a match. This chapter will give you the basics - the most important things to know.

The basics of the match simulation

In each half a number of attacks are made, and the midfield decides which team gets each attack. The team with the strongest midfield (the team with the most ball possession) is most likely to get the largest number of attacks.  When a team gets an attack it is decided what kind of attack it is. There are three types of attacks (right wing, left wing, centre), and set pieces (free kicks and penalties) also. The attacking team's attack for that sector will then try to break through the defending team's defence for that sector.

The basic attacks

In each match a number of basic attacks (as explained above) are made. Some of these attacks are open, and can be taken by either team, and some are exclusive for one team only.

For open attacks, the midfield decides which team gets each attack. Exclusive attacks work in the same fashion, with one exception: If your midfield “win” one of your opponent's exclusive attacks; you stop the attack – but you don't get it yourself. You can't get your opponent's exclusive chances, and they can't get yours.

Most of the basic attacks are reported in the match report, but attacks a long way from leading to goals are not reported.  You may also gain additional attacks from "Special Events" and from counter-attacks. These additional attacks are described in the other two match chapters.

Home team advantage

The home team is helped by their fans. Ordinarily you have a larger percentage of possession at home than away.  When both teams playing in the match are from the same region, the game is treated as a derby. In this case, the home team still benefits from home advantage, but the away team also receives a boost of around half that received by the home team. Games on neutral grounds do not provide any home advantage bonuses, even when a team is from the same region as the neutral ground.

Psychology and the coach's mentality

Team spirit, confidence and team attitude affect how well your team performs. You can read all about how Hattrick simulates these in the "Psychology" chapter.
The coach's mentality (if he's offensive, defensive or neutral) also plays a part. Read more about this in the "The coach" chapter.

Team rating is the rating you should focus on

After a match has been played, you will get a team rating for each part of the team. These ratings tell you how well different parts of your team performed in the match and these ratings are also what matters in the actual match calculation.

The match rating denominations (scale goes from non-existent to divine) are also specified in four sub-levels: very low, low, high and very high. This way it's easier to know how good your rating is within a certain step. For example a "very high solid" rating is a just a little bit worse than "very low excellent", but a lot better than "very low passable".

Star rating

After a match your players receive a star rating for their performance in the match. The more stars, the better the performance.

Please note that the star rating only rates the individual player performance on his particular position and is useful for comparing different players playing in the same position. It's not an ideal way to measure team strength. To know how your whole team performed (and compare with other teams), look at the team ratings.

Please also be aware that team effects (such as the contribution loss for more than one player in a central position, see basic lineup chapter) is not reflected in the star rating.

A normal case

Shortly put, the state of the midfield decides how many opportunities your team will produce during a match. The other parts of the team will decide the probability of attacks leading to goals.

The following table may help you somewhat when you select your team. Note that it's only an approximation.  Some levels of skills following each other may mean only slight differences in performance, and for others the differences might be much larger. In addition, individual orders or contribution loss for two or more players in a central position (see previous chapter) have not been taken into consideration.

Part of team Factors (most important first)
Midfield Playmaking inner midfielders
Playmaking wingers
Playmaking central defenders
Playmaking forwards
Playmaking wingbacks
Attack left wing Winger left winger
Winger left wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing left inner midfielder
Passing left winger
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Passing inner midfielders
Defence left wing Defending left wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending left central defender
Defending left winger
Defending centre central defender
Defending goalkeeper
Defending left inner midfielder
Defending centre inner midfielder
Attack centre Scoring forwards
Passing forwards
Passing inner midfielders
Scoring inner midfielders
Passing wingers
Defence centre Defending central defenders
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending inner midfielders
Defending wing backs
Defending goalkeeper
Defending wingers
Attack right wing Winger right winger
Winger right wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing right inner midfielder
Passing right winger
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Passing inner midfielders
Defence right wing Defending right wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending right central defender
Defending right winger
Defending centre central defender
Defending goalkeeper
Defending right inner midfielder
Defending centre inner midfielder


Every week you get to choose what kind of training you want your players to concentrate on in training sessions. The effects of the weekly training always appear on Thursday or Friday, depending on your country. The training type selected when the update starts is the one that will be trained that week. Changes in players' current form and background form also occur at this time.

Player age and skill level

Younger players are in general faster learners than older players, but how much your player will learn from training also depends on the skill level he's at – the lower the skill level the faster the training.  Training on very low skill levels is many times faster than on medium skill levels, and training on very high skill levels is slower than on medium skill levels.

Apart from age and skill level there are four factors deciding the effects of training: the intensity of training, training type, the amount of stamina training, and the coaching staff (head coach and assistants).

Training Intensity

The harder you train, the better the squad's form becomes in general, and effects from training increase. You decide the intensity of training by supplying a number between 0 and 100.  The drawback of a high level of intensity is that risks for injuries increase. You'll have to decide yourself what level of intensity will suit you - do ask other managers on the forums.

Significantly decreasing intensity can provide a 'one-time' boost to team spirit. Once you order your players to train with more intensity again, their team spirit will understandably drop with this news. If you want to change the training intensity please keep in mind that the new value must have been entered at the latest one update before the training update.

Training type

There are 11 types of training to choose from. All of them make your players better at something. The different types of training are shown in the table below.

Coaching staff

If you have a good coach, training will be more effective than if you have a bad one. Assistant coaches also increase the effect of training.

Stamina training

Stamina must be trained every week, as a percentage of the total training of the team. Its efficiency will drop at higher intensity levels – it's better to train a little every week than a lot now and then.  Older players will need more training every week to maintain a certain stamina level, which in turn means that managers will have to find the appropriate stamina training share for their particular squad and ambitions.  Players that have played for at least 90 minutes for your team during the week receive 100% of the team's stamina training effect. Players playing less than 90 minutes (subs for example) receive 75% of the effect, plus a share for each minute they've played. Other squad players who have not played for your team during the week, but who are healthy enough to train (players injured for 1 week or less) receive half the effect.

Stamina training affects the overall form of your team negatively; the more stamina you train the more the negative effect on form.  It should be noted that only current form, not background form, is affected by stamina training.

Basic principles

The amount of training a player receives depends on how many minutes he has played for your team in a trainable position during a competitive or a friendly match. Matches played for other teams will only count for the purposes of the form update, and no training will be received. If a player has seen no 'live action' or has not played at least 1 minute, he will not train at all. A player can receive 90 minutes training during a week. Playing more than 90 minutes in a trainable position will not give him more training. Playing less, for example 50 minutes, will give him less training – in this case 50 minutes out of 90.

If a player has played in two or more different positions during the week, the 90 minutes that give him the best training effect will be chosen at the training update. Individual player behaviours during matches do not affect training.

Players on a winger position will only receive half of the training when trained in playmaking. The same goes for wingbacks when trained in winger.

It doesn't matter if the player plays in a friendly game, a cup match or a league game - they are all just as effective from a training point of view. However, if you do not have enough players on the pitch at the start of a competitive game, you will give away a walkover victory, but you will only lose training for that specific game. All training for the week won't be lost. On the other hand, if you show up for a competitive match, but your opponent doesn't, you will win by walkover and the starting XI will receive training as normal, but will earn no players experience.

Brackets indicate small effects. Double brackets indicate very small effects.

Training type Improves ...for...
Set pieces Set pieces All players playing match, 25% bonus to the set pieces taker and goalkeeper
Defending Defending Defenders ((All players playing match))
Scoring Scoring Forwards ((All players playing match))
Winger Winger Wingers (Wing backs) ((All players playing match))
Scoring and Set Pieces (Scoring) (All players playing match)
(Set pieces ) ((All players playing match))
Passing Passing Inner midfielders, wingers and forwards ((All players playing match))
Playmaking Playmaking Inner midfielders (Wingers) ((All players playing match))
Keeper Goalkeeping Goalkeepers
Passing (Defenders + Midfielders) Passing Defenders, inner midfielders and wingers ((All players playing match))
Defending (Defenders + Midfielders) Defending (Goalkeepers, defenders, inner midfielders and wingers) ((All players playing match))
Winger (Winger + Attackers) Winger Forwards and wingers ((All players playing match))
Individual (Youth Academy only) Valuable skill(s) for the position played in match (All players playing match)


The team trains "Winger" this week. Please note that your actual match day may vary - Sunday refers to the weekend league match, while Wednesday is the midweek friendly/cup match.

  • Adam Adams played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday but missed the Wednesday game. He receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Bert McBert played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He also receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Carl Carlson played 50 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a wing defender Wednesday. He receives 50 minutes full winger training and 40 minutes winger training with small effect.
  • David Davis played 40 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He receives 40 minutes full winger training and 50 minutes winger training with very small ("osmosis") effect.
  • Freddie Fredericks plays 90 minutes as a wingback both Sunday and Wednesday. He still only receives 90 minutes winger training with small effect.
  • Gus O'Gumby didn't play on either Sunday or Wednesday. He doesn't improve his skill at all.

Skill decrease

When a player gets closer to the age of 30, he loses a little of his skills each week. How big the decrease is depends on how old the player is and the level of skill he is at. The higher level of skill the player is at, the bigger decrease. Older players also suffer from bigger decreases than younger ones.

The coach

Your coach is an important person responsible for training and inspiring your players.

Coach abilities

Skill: A skilled coach knows the right methods to train players in order to make them better. The more talented your coach is, the more effective training will be. A coach can never be better than excellent. All new teams get a passable coach to start with.

Leadership: Apart from planning training activities, your coach is also an inspirational source for your players. Your team spirit will be better in general if your coach is a good leader.

Tactics: Your coach can be offensive, defensive or neutral, which (only) affects your team's performance during the game. An offensive coach improves your attack at the expense of your defence and a defensive coach improves your defence at the expense of your attack. A defensive coach improves defence slightly more than an offensive improves attack, to the same expense. A neutral coach is neither offensive nor defensive, which means he doesn't aid any team part or incur any penalties.

Ability deterioration

After your coach has been in your club for one season, his leadership skill will start to slowly deteriorate. Once your coach reaches disastrous leadership, the deterioration starts hitting his trainer skill instead.

Change coach

If you are not satisfied with your coach you can either recruit a new external one or make one of your players coach. You can do this from "Staff", under the “My Club" menu.

Remember, all new trainers of a certain skill level are equal. If you purchase a coach with passable trainer skill for example, he always becomes "average" passable (an excellent coach is however only 1/2 step greater than a solid coach).

When you hire a new coach your old coach will remain in the team as a player, but he can never become trainer again and you can not sell him either. If you don't want to keep him, you will have to fire him.

Recruit an external coach

When you recruit a new coach you first decide what style of play you want for your coach, and then you decide how good you want him to be. Each combination of leadership and skill has a fixed price, the better trainer the higher price.

Make a player coach

When you turn a player into a coach he will keep his current leadership. His experience determines how skilled he can become, and also how much the course to reach a certain skill level costs. So, if you have a very experienced player with high leadership, this can be a real bargain. However, a player can not achieve a trainer skill that is higher than his experience and the player must have been in your squad for a season (16 weeks) before you can make him a coach.


As the club manager you are also responsible for your team's finances. You pay the expenses and collect the income at the weekly update. You can see the exact time this happens in your league on the Local Schedule page. If for example you buy a player for 10 000 US$ the player is accessible immediately, and your "new signings" entry is increased by 10 000 US$.

Revenues and expenses

On the finances page you can see your budget for this week and last week's financial status. This is what the entries mean:


Match takings: Your income from league matches at home and mid-week matches. See Chapter 10 'The Stadium' for more information on crowd income.

Sponsors: Each week you get a sum of money from your sponsors. Check the 'Fans and sponsors' chapter for more info

Player sales: Whenever you sell a player, the income ends up here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.

Commission: If you receive any money for being the previous club or mother club of a player, it will show here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.

Other: Any other income is accumulated here, such as membership fees from fans and prize money.


Wages: Each week you pay your players' salaries. For each player you pay 250 US$ plus a certain amount based on his skills and age. You pay 20% extra for players who are playing abroad.

Stadium maintenance: The weekly cost for running and servicing your stadium. See chapter 10 'The Stadium' for more info.

Stadium building: Construction or removal costs if you alter your stadium.

Staff: Each staff member costs you between 1 020 US$ and 33 840 US$ per week, depending on the level of the staff member (1 to 5) and the contract's length (1 to 16 weeks).

Youth scouting: The weekly costs for your youth academy, or the weekly investment in your scouting network.

New signings: Your costs for buying new players from the transfer market appear here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.

Other: The remaining costs are accumulated here, such as firing staff and promoting players to your senior team.

Interest: If you're in debt you will have to pay some interest.

Cash funds and Board reserves

The Board limits the money available in cash to the manager for expenses such as salaries, player transfer fees, or stadium projects. Any assets beyond this working capital will be reserved by the Board to ensure the future stability of the Club. If needed, the Board will release money from the reserves into the working capital, but only at a measured rate.

The Financial Director, who you can hire for your staff, can increase both the working capital and the rate of return from the cash reserves.

Debts and bankruptcy

There's nothing to keep you from spending money even if your balance is zero. You can run a small debt and still spend money on for example buying players or hiring a coach. Once you hit 200 000 US$ in debt your options to spend are limited. You then still have a line of credit of up to 500 000 US$ at the bank. Whenever you go into red, be prepared to pay some heavy interest on your borrowed money. If you run up debts amounting to 500 000 US$ you'll be given a bankruptcy warning. If you do not return your balance to within the 500 000 US$ debt limit within two weeks of your bankruptcy warning, you will be forced to leave the Hattrick series system! Note that if a team has players for sale with bids enough to reach the "safe zone" or the team has plenty of cash on the board reserves, the team will not go bankrupt.

Fans and sponsors

Both sponsors and fans control important sources of income. Therefore it is strongly advised to have a good relation with them and keep their mood up - it will pay off in the end.

Fan mood

The members of your fan club decide a lot when it comes to your team's finances. Membership fees (30 US$ / member) are paid once per season, but more importantly their mood decides a lot when it comes to your income from stadium ticket sales.

The easiest way to keep their mood up, and attract more fans, is to match (or even exceed) their expectations. Fans current mood can be seen on the fans page.

Season expectations

At the start of every season, fans will tell you what they expect of the team. Their expectations depend mostly on what happened last season, what fans expected then and what the outcome was.

As your team advances (or drops) in the league system, your fans will slowly get used to the new situation. If you just got promoted, fans will not expect much from you. But if you are staying put in the same division year after year, fans will have a tendency to hope for just a little more.

Match expectations

The season expectations in turn influence the expectations for each game. On the Fans page you can see what the fans expect from each game. Generally, fans expect more from you when you play at home.

If the match result is what they expected, they will like you in case of a win (and not become so very disappointed if expectations of a loss tallies with a defeat). If the result is better than their expectations, their mood will be even better. But if the result is worse than their expectations, it will affect their mood negatively. For the first league rounds of the season, your fans' reaction to the results will be a bit more moderate.

At the start of the season, match expectations are based on the seasonal expectations of both teams' fans. As the season progresses, the actual league position and amount of points of both teams becomes more important. In cup matches, fans base their match expectations only on the seasonal expectations (including division level) of both teams.

Team attitude and your cash reserve influence fans

Telling your players to "Play it cool" or play the "Match of the Season" also influences the fan reaction to the match result. If the result is as expected (or better), playing it cool will reduce the positive effect and match of the season will increase the positive effect.

If the result is worse than expected, playing it cool will increase the negative effect and match of the season will reduce the negative effect.

If you have a lot of money in your cash reserve, your fans are a bit harder to please as they feel you have money to invest to reach success. Rich teams' fans react stronger to losses and weaker to wins than fans of poorer clubs. The more money your team holds, the higher significance these feelings have.


Sponsors prefer supporting a club sporting a good "image" to which they can be connected. The more successful your team is and the bigger your team's fan club is, the better image (and the more sponsor money) you'll get. Your sponsors' mood can be seen on the finances page.

The stadium

Your club will start off with a small stadium, which you will have the opportunity to improve throughout your Hattrick career. On the stadium page you can see and manage all details about your stadium.

Income and costs

Your stadium can have four different types of stands, each having their own income possibilities and weekly upkeep costs (which you always have to pay).

  Income Weekly cost
Terrace places 7 US$ 0.5 US$
Regular seats 10 US$ 0.7 US$
Seats under roof 19 US$ 1 US$
Seats in VIP lounge 35 US$ 2.5 US$

In the match reports from home games you're able to see how many seats were sold in each separate type of stand. The income from matches is distributed differently between clubs depending on what type of match it is:

League matches: The home team takes all the income.

Cup matches: The home team takes 2/3 of the income and away team gets 1/3, except for the last six rounds which are played at neutral venues and income is split evenly.

Friendlies and qualifiers: Income is split evenly

Your crowd appearance

How many spectators visit your stadium largely depends on your fans. Your fans' mood and the size of your fan club are the most important crowd factors. Your current position in your series, and the difference between your position and your opponent's position are also of importance (for series games).

To some extent your opponents' fan club size and fan mood matters, as some of them might like to come too. It is also worth knowing that people get more interested in attending games as the season goes by. You will generally get bigger crowds at the end of the season than at the start.

The weather naturally also matters. Fewer spectators will visit your stadium in bad weather, but those who come will be more interested in buying more expensive tickets and sitting under a roof. It is therefore possible that your total income will be similar in any weather, provided there enough appropriate stands.

Improving the stadium

To improve your stadium you order a construction company to rebuild your stadium. It'll take some time - a week or more depending on the scope of the conversion. All existing stands stay available during the construction time. You pay a set price of 10 000 US$ per conversion, together with a cost for each seat you want to add or remove:
  Construction cost Removing cost
Terrace places 45 US$ 6 US$
Regular seats 75 US$ 6 US$
Seats under roof 90 US$ 6 US$
Seats in VIP lounge 300 US$ 6 US$

It's a good idea to have a mix of different types of stands to offer your fans. Most people want to buy tickets to the terraces, therefore these should be the largest in number among your seat types. Some people only attend matches if they can have comfortable seats (and some will also demand a roof over their seats), so you should have quite a lot of those too. There is also the "prawn sandwich" brigade who only want to sit in fancy VIP lounges, they're not that many but you may not want to forget about them. Seats under a roof and in VIP lounges aren't affected as much by bad weather as the other types.


Hiring the right staff members is important to your team and to the development of the club. Your staff may not be found in the dugout on match day, but they will work with the players during the week or fulfill other key tasks for the club. They complement the head coach and for you as manager it is crucial to make sure you have the right people on the team.

Staff effects and skill levels

Any contribution you get from hiring a staff member is applied as a static bonus on top of an existing team stat. This bonus will always be visible to you. But since team stats are dynamic to begin with, and are influenced by different factors, the final effect achieved with a hired staff member can be hard to predict exactly. What you can be sure of is that you are moving the needle in the right direction. Staff members with higher skill levels naturally contribute a higher bonus effect. These bonuses are linear - which means that each additional skill level always contributes as much again as the skill level before. If you have several staff members within the same category, their bonuses are combined and applied only once. In this way, a single level 4 Assistant Coach has the same effect as two level 2 Assistant Coaches. To make things easier, you will always see the actual bonus given by your current backroom staff or any staff you plan to hire written out on the Staff page. A table with all staff categories and bonuses can also be found at the end of this section.

Size of your staff

You can employ up to 4 staff members in total. You may employ up to 2 Assistant Coaches at a time. For all other staff categories your board will only allow one staff member at a time.

Hiring and firing

When you hire a staff member, you need to choose a duration of up to 16 weeks for the contract. The longer the contract, the less expensive it will be per week. You have the option to break a contract ahead of time if your plans change and you need a staff slot to open up, but if you do you will need to pay the saving up to that time, twice, so it can be very costly to change your mind. Also, a staff member can never be fired in the first week of employment or during the last week of a contract. Beyond this there are no limitations as to how often you can make changes to your staff.

Breaking a contract

When you break a contract, you need to pay a fee of the savings up to that time, twice. If for instance, you have a contract of 13 weeks length with a staff level 3 and you want to break it on 8th week, you have paid up to now, 8 times the weekly salary of 4 800 US$ or 38 400 US$ in total. However, if you had a contract of 8 weeks length you would have paid 8 times of 6 000 US$ or 48 000 US$. The saving is 9 600 US$ and the breaking fee will be 19 200 US$.


Length of contract Skill Level 1 Skill Level 2 Skill Level 3 Skill Level 4 Skill Level 5
1 week 2 115 US$ 4 230 US$ 8 460 US$ 16 920 US$ 33 840 US$
2 weeks 2 055 US$ 4 110 US$ 8 220 US$ 16 440 US$ 32 880 US$
3 weeks 1 890 US$ 3 780 US$ 7 560 US$ 15 120 US$ 30 240 US$
4 weeks 1 770 US$ 3 540 US$ 7 080 US$ 14 160 US$ 28 320 US$
5 weeks 1 710 US$ 3 420 US$ 6 840 US$ 13 680 US$ 27 360 US$
6 weeks 1 650 US$ 3 300 US$ 6 600 US$ 13 200 US$ 26 400 US$
7 weeks 1 575 US$ 3 150 US$ 6 300 US$ 12 600 US$ 25 200 US$
8 weeks 1 500 US$ 3 000 US$ 6 000 US$ 12 000 US$ 24 000 US$
9 weeks 1 440 US$ 2 880 US$ 5 760 US$ 11 520 US$ 23 040 US$
10 weeks 1 380 US$ 2 760 US$ 5 520 US$ 11 040 US$ 22 080 US$
11 weeks 1 320 US$ 2 640 US$ 5 280 US$ 10 560 US$ 21 120 US$
12 weeks 1 260 US$ 2 520 US$ 5 040 US$ 10 080 US$ 20 160 US$
13 weeks 1 200 US$ 2 400 US$ 4 800 US$ 9 600 US$ 19 200 US$
14 weeks 1 140 US$ 2 280 US$ 4 560 US$ 9 120 US$ 18 240 US$
15 weeks 1 080 US$ 2 160 US$ 4 320 US$ 8 640 US$ 17 280 US$
16 weeks 1 020 US$ 2 040 US$ 4 080 US$ 8 160 US$ 16 320 US$

Staff categories

Assistant Coach

The training speed bonus given by Assistant Coaches is added to your team's existing training efficiency. Make sure you have a good regular coach before considering spending much money on assistant coaches. But when you do have a competent head coach, hiring a number of skilled Assistant Coaches could be a good strategy for any team focused on training.

Skill Level Training Speed Injury Risk Form
Skill Level: 0
No bonus 40% No bonus
Skill Level: 1
+3,5% +2,5% +0,05
Skill Level: 2
+7% +5% +0,1
Skill Level: 3
+10,5% +7,5% +0,15
Skill Level: 4
+14% +10% +0,2
Skill Level: 5
+17,5% +12,5% +0,25

Effect Details

This bonus is added as a multiplier on top of the existing training efficiency as decided by the coaching skill of your head coach, your chosen training intensity, and your chosen stamina share. As an example, if you had a solid coach, 100 % training intensity, and 10 % stamina share, the following training speeds would be achieved for a 22 year old formidable playmaker:

No assistant coach: 8 weeks until next level.
Level 5 skill coach combination: 7 weeks until next level.
Level 10 skill coach combination: 6 weeks until next level.

You can hire up to 2 Assistant Coaches at a time. If you have several Assistant Coaches, their combined skill levels will create one single bonus. This means a Level 4 Assistant Coach contributes exactly the same as two Level 2 Assistant coaches would.

Alongside the effects on training, Assistant Coaches also have two side effects. Form is increased, but so is injury risk.

Injury risk is calculated as the average number of injuries per game, not per player but per team. The base value is 0.4 injuries per match for your team. With a level 5 Medic this can be reduced to 0.025. Assistant Coaches contribute to a higher injury risk by 0.025 injuries per match per skill level hired. This means a level 5 Assistant Coach increases your base injury risk to 0.525 injuries per match (0.15 with a level 5 Medic), and two level 5 Assistant Coaches gives you a base injury risk of 0.65 injuries per match (0.275 with a Level 5 Medic).

As already mentioned, on the positive side Assistant Coaches do increase the background form of your players. If you have a full 10 skill levels of Assistant Coaches, background form will increase by 0.5 levels. In other words, two level 5 Assistant Coaches contribute half as much to form as a level 5 Form Coach would.

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Medics are responsible for the overall physical condition of your players. This means they work both proactively to prevent injuries as well as with the rehabilitation of any players that do get injured. Having a Medic on the team will reduce injury risk as well as decreasing the recovery time for injured players.

Skill Level Recovery Speed Injury Risk
Skill Level: 0
No bonus 40%
Skill Level: 1
+20% -7,5%
Skill Level: 2
+40% -15%
Skill Level: 3
+60% -22,5%
Skill Level: 4
+80% -30%
Skill Level: 5
+100% -37,5%

Effect Details

Every time your team plays a match, there is a certain injury risk for your players. Having a Medic in the backroom staff will reduce the base injury risk for your team. A level 5 Medic will reduce the base injury risk from 0.4 injuries per match to 0.025, but be aware that other factors - such as hiring Assistant Coaches - may increase the risk.

If a player experiences an injury, Medics also help speed up their recovery. In Hattrick, injuries show up with an estimated recovery time in weeks. During every daily update, the player recovers a little bit on his way to 90 % health (when he can play again, but is still bruised) and then, ultimately, to 100 % health, when he has no sign of the injury left.

The graph shows how much faster a player will recover fully from the same injury, depending on whether or not you have a Medic. With no Medic, a 19 year old player will take 3 weeks to recover. With a level 2 Medic he will take around 2 weeks to recover. With a level 5 Medic this reduces to approximately one and a half weeks.

A 29 year old player with the same injury would take 6 weeks to recover with no Medic. A level 1 Medic reduces this to about 5 weeks. A level 5 Medic reduces it further to just under 3 weeks.

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Sports Psychologist

The mental game is almost as important as the physical one. Hiring a Sports Psychologist can really help you create a winning atmosphere. This staff member will help you maintain your team's confidence in their own game as well as help nurture the team spirit of the whole squad.

Skill Level Team spirit Confidence
Skill Level: 0
No bonus No bonus
Skill Level: 1
+0,1 +0,2
Skill Level: 2
+0,2 +0,4
Skill Level: 3
+0,3 +0,6
Skill Level: 4
+0,4 +0,8
Skill Level: 5
+0,5 +1

Effect Details

Team spirit is driven by the team attitude you set for previous games. Immediately after a game team spirit may get a boost or drop lower, depending on which team attitude was used. But at each daily update the team spirit then tends to normalise, which means if it is high then it will slowly drop and if it is low then it will slowly recover. A Sports Psychologist can help you improve this process by raising the base value toward which your team spirit moves naturally. A higher base value means that high team spirit values will fall slower and low ones will rise faster. The bonus received is one tenth of a level per skill level employed. This means a level 5 Sports Psychologist will increase your team spirit base value by half a level of team spirit.

Your team's confidence is also helped by the Sports Psychologist. Confidence is primarily driven by your team results and how many goals you've scored. But the Sports Psychologist adds a bonus to confidence as well. This bonus equals one full level of confidence for a Level 5 Sports Psychologist, or one fifth of a level of confidence per skill level employed.

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Form Coach

Player performance is not only down to technical skills and physical stamina. Players tend to go in and out of form, and many factors can influence this, not least mental ones.

The Form Coach specialises in getting the most out of the player material you have. He keeps the squad match fit and motivated. Hiring a form coach is not a quick fix, neither is the effect permanent - but for some teams and some situations it can be a good solution.

Skill Level Form
Skill Level: 0
No bonus
Skill Level: 1
Skill Level: 2
Skill Level: 3
Skill Level: 4
Skill Level: 5

Effect Details

The form of a player is a measure of how close he is to be performing at his maximum potential. The value you see on the player is the current form, and this is what is used in the match simulation. However, the current form always has a trend and the value the form is moving toward is called the background form. By using a Form Coach you will receive a bonus to your background form updates. Whenever background form is recalculated (this happens on average every second week) each skill level of the Form Coach will bump the background form higher by 0.2 levels. This means a level 5 Form Coach will add a whole level of background form to your player when the update is applied. Please note that background form can still drop, but that your average over time will be higher.

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Financial Director

The Financial Director increases the manager’s economic flexibility. This is ONLY useful for managers of wealthy Clubs.

(If you are a new user, there is no need to consider a Financial Director at all.)

Normally, the Board will limit the money available in cash to the manager for expenses such as salaries, player transfer fees, or stadium projects. Any assets beyond this working capital will be reserved by the Board to ensure the future stability of the Club. If needed, the Board will release money from the reserves into the working capital, but only at a measured rate. Surplus working capital will be converted into reserves at a rate of 2% of the total cash per week.

By hiring a Financial Director the Board will allow both a higher working capital and a faster rate of return from the cash reserves. In turn, this will allow the manager to invest more aggressively than the Board would otherwise have agreed to. Having a Financial Director may be necessary for teams that want to save up for a few seasons to make an expensive run for the cup or league title.

Skill Level Max Funds Return/week
Skill Level: 0
15 000 000 US$ 50 000 US$
Skill Level: 1
17 000 000 US$ 100 000 US$
Skill Level: 2
19 000 000 US$ 200 000 US$
Skill Level: 3
21 000 000 US$ 300 000 US$
Skill Level: 4
23 000 000 US$ 400 000 US$
Skill Level: 5
25 000 000 US$ 500 000 US$

Example: Team Tycoon has accumulated 40 000 000 US$ in funds. Without a Financial Director, the Board will only allow the manager access to 15 000 000 US$ at a time. If the manager spends 2 000 000 US$, and the new cash balance is 13 000 000 US$, the Board will again make investment funds available to the manager, but only at the slow rate of 50 000 US$ per week.

Now Team Tycoon hires a Level 3 Financial Director. The Board becomes more confident that cash is handled responsibly. The allowed working capital is increased to 21 000 000 US$ and the weekly release rate is bumped up to 300 000 US$. As long as the Club's current balance stands below 21 000 000 US$, an extra 300 000 US$ per week will be transferred automatically by the Board from the reserves. If the cash funds grow beyond 21 000 000 US$, for example through player sales, money instead starts flowing into the reserves, at a rate of 2% of the total cash per week.

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Tactical assistant

Hiring a tactical assistant will improve the team’s flexibility with more strategic moves and advanced lineups. The results are mainly a short term decision, since a tactical assistant affects only the upcoming match - make sure that you will hire one when your club needs him.

Skill Level Extra subs / orders Style of play flexibility
Skill Level: 0
No bonus No bonus
Skill Level: 1
+1 +20pp
Skill Level: 2
+2 +40pp
Skill Level: 3
+3 +60pp
Skill Level: 4
+4 +80pp
Skill Level: 5
+5 +100pp

Effect Details

Instead of the maximum five custom orders per game (that can be used for substitutions, changed player behaviour or position swaps) you can now get one extra order per level of your tactical assistant, up to a maximum of 10 orders with a level 5 tactical assistant. Keep in mind that the limit of 3 substitutions per match still applies, even when you have a Tactical Assistant.

The style of play ranges between 100% defensive (which is default for defence-minded coaches) and 100% offensive (which is default for coaches who prefer attacking play) with neutral being the middle point. You'll be able to set this for each match in the match order interface where you'll get 20pp (percentage points) flexibility per level of your tactical assistant from your coach's style of play.

For example, if you have a defence-minded coach and also a level 5 tactical assistant, you now have an available range of style of play that spans from 100% defensive to neutral. If you have a neither attack nor defence-minded coach along with a level 5 tactical assistant your available range will be span from Neutral half way to both defensive (50%) and offensive (50%).

You need to have your tactical assistant on the payroll at the time of the match. In case you have placed match orders with a tactical assistant, then fired him or have the contract end without renewing it, the match will be simulated without the extra sub/orders and using the default style of play of your current coach.

Lineup: Experience and confusion

Formation experience

Your team can play any formation you wish, but your players might get confused and play below their ordinary capacity if you use a formation they aren't experienced with. To get the formation experience up and avoid confusion your team simply needs some practice. You gain some experience for a formation every time you use it (friendlies and competitive matches count just as much, but not tournaments, ladders, single matches or the Hattrick Masters). The amount of experience you get for each formation you use is minute based (max 90 min per match), just as training. However, if you win by a walkover and field at least 9 players in your starting line-up, you also get formation experience as if the match was played for 90 minutes. Gaining more formation experience becomes harder on higher levels of formation experience. If you don't play with a certain formation, the experience will decrease over time. There is also a risk of losing a little formation experience when you sell a player.


If your players aren't experienced enough with a formation they risk getting confused at any time during the match, which negatively affects their performance. An excellent formation experience level (or better) is enough to keep you on the safe side. For lower levels, the risk of getting confused rises the lower your formation experience level is. If your players' accumulated individual experience (see below) is high, the risk decreases though.

In case of confusion your formation experience also decides how confused your players will be; the lower your formation experience level is, the more confused your players will be. If your players get confused, a text showing the current level of your team organisation will be displayed in the match report. A confusion event saying that your team organisation fell to "wretched" means that it was very bad, while a drop to "solid" only had a very limited effect. If your players are confused at half-time (or before extra-time) your coach can improve the situation somewhat by giving an extra briefing.

Players' individual experience

Experience positively affects a player's actions on the field. The players get their experience through playing matches. The National Cup and Divisional Cup gives the player on the field the double amount of experience compared to a league game. Challenger and Consolation Cup matches gives your players half the experience they would get in a league game. An International friendly match gives about a fifth of the experience that a league match gives and a friendly against a team from your own country gives about half as much as an international friendly. National team matches give the most experience, followed by Hattrick Masters matches.

The amount of experience a certain player gets is minute based, just as training. A player can not gain more than 90 minutes of experience from each match.

Team captain and total experience

You can appoint a team captain for each match. Experience and leadership are important abilities for the team captain, as the captain's level in those abilities give a bonus when calculating your team's total experience – which can prevent your team both from suffering confusion and from getting nervous in important and dramatic matches. In such situations, only the team with the lowest amount of experience at that particular moment in the match risks a negative event due to nervousness. The difference between the two teams' experience levels decides how nervous the players will get. Teams will never suffer from this in league matches or friendlies.

The team captain has to be in your starting lineup. If you haven't appointed a team captain, the players will choose a captain they think will do a good job.

Penalty takers

Cup and qualifier matches can end in a penalty shoot-out if the scores are still level after extra time. You choose your penalty takers through a sub-page to the order form. When choosing the order please remember that nothing is more nerve-wracking than a penalty contest, and at every penalty (not during regular match time, though) a test of the shooter's experience is made. Apart from experience, the shooter's scoring and set pieces skills (as well as technical speciality) are taken into consideration. For keepers the keeper skill is all that matters.

Match: Set pieces and special events

In this match chapter we will move a little bit deeper and focus on two important match details: how you score from set pieces and what you can gain from "special events" (and other additional match events).

Set pieces

Some of your basic attacks will result in a set pieces opportunity. Just as in real football, you can earn many points by being good at set pieces. There are two types of set pieces, direct and indirect.

Direct set pieces

Direct set pieces are penalties and direct free kicks. To score your appointed set pieces taker uses his set pieces skill to outwit the opposing goalkeeper. Your goalkeeper uses set pieces in addition to his goalkeeping skill when defending against direct set pieces, but he can not be your set pieces taker.

Indirect set pieces

About 1/3 of your set pieces chances will be indirect. Indirect set pieces are indirect free kicks, and the outcome depends on team effort. To attack you use (in order of importance) your outfield players' average scoring skill, their average set pieces skill, and your set pieces taker's set pieces skill. To defend you use (in order of importance) your outfielders' average defending, their average set pieces, your goalkeeper's goalkeeping, and his set pieces.

Special events

Apart from the basic attacks, you can also have "special events" happen. Special events are match events depending on players' attributes, their specialities in particular, which makes it a strategy itself to compose a squad that has a good balance of player specialities.

There are two types of special events, team events and individual events. The chance to experience a team special event is decided by your ball possession (if you have 55% ball possession you also have a 55% chance to get a team special event).

The individual special events is driven by what specialities the players on the field have. Having many players with specialities can be an advantage, but it is not enough. You must also have players with the right attribute in the right position for a particular event for it to be triggered. It is important to find the right balance of specialities on your team.

For each special event happening in a match, the chance for another special event decreases.

Weather conditions

Certain specialties are better suited to certain weather conditions. All players’ performance are affected under specific weather conditions from the very start of the game.

Technical players gain 5% on all their skills in the sun, but lose the same percentage in the rain.

Powerful players gain 5% in the rain, and lose 5% in the sun.

Quick players lose 5% in the rain and in the sun.

When the weather has an influence on the players, you will get information about it in the match report, and the affected players' star rating will also reflect their performance accordingly.

Goal events

Specialities (and other player attributes) can gain you additional attacks. In addition to what is listed below, the player who puts the chance away (often, but not always, the same player who creates the chance) also needs some scoring skill in order to score from these attacks.

Unpredictable players can use their passing skill to create unexpected long passes if they are keepers, wing-backs or central defenders, and their scoring skill to intercept the ball if they are inner midfielders, forwards or wingers. If they are outfield players, their unpredictability itself may also create unlikely scoring opportunities. The lower the defence skill of an unpredictable defender or inner midfielder, the higher the probability that they can also make a reckless error that will give the opponent a chance to score. Besides this, an unpredictable winger or forward with low passing skill is more likely to cause chaos in your defence, possibly resulting in an unfortunate own goal.

Quick wingers, inner midfielders and forwards can create a chance by using a burst of speed. This can be countered by the opposing team using a defensive player (central defender or wing back) who is also quick. You will also have a boost on your counter attacks tactic level for every quick winger, inner midfielder, and forward on your team. The opponent can still diminish this effect with quick inner midfielders, wing back or defenders (just the extra boost can be nullified, not the initial tactic level).

Technical wingers, inner midfielders and forwards can create chances if an opposing defender or inner midfielder is a head specialist (the head specialist doesn’t have to be in the exact opposite slot). Moreover, every technical defender and wing back will give you a small chance to create a non-tactical counter attack from a missed normal chance of your opponent. The higher the passing of the defender, the bigger the chance.

Wingers with sufficient winger skill can create chances that will have to be finished off by another winger, a midfielder or a forward. If that other player has sufficient scoring skill, he will be more likely to score; if he is a head specialist, it will be even easier for him to score.

Corner: To score from a corner kick, you can improve your chances by having a high set pieces skill on the player that takes the corner and by having a high offensive indirect set pieces rating against the opponent's defensive indirect set pieces rating. There are two types of corner kicks. In one, the higher the number of outfield head specialists in your team (your set pieces taker does not count), and the lower the number of outfield head specialists among your opponent's, the better your chances to score. Having no head specialists at all will make you very weak at defending against corners and very weak at scoring from your own corners. In the other, the chance to score will depend on the scoring skill of the player that receives the ball. Note that corners might lead to a yellow card for the offensive team, but if your player is already carded, he will be extra careful, so the risk of a second yellow is lower than it would otherwise have been.

Experience: experienced forwards can score using their experience. Inexperienced central defenders and wing backs can give their opponents an extra chance.

Tiredness: Tired central defensive players can make mistakes. Unless the opposing attacker is also too tired, this may create a chance for the opponent.

Other additional match events

There are also some additional events you can get in a match. The chance to get these events is not dependent on midfield strength, so the chance doesn't increase if you're dominating the midfield.

Counter-attacks: Even if you don't use the counter-attack tactic there is a slim chance that your team gets to counter. These "tactic-independent" counter-attacks do not require your team to have an inferior midfield (which otherwise is necessary to counter). See the chapter about tactics for more info about counter-attacks.

Long shots: Even if you don't use the long shot tactic there is a slim chance that your team gets a long shot opportunity. Read the tactics chapter for more info about long shots.

Powerful inner midfielders, if playing defensive (also called sitting midfielders) can concentrate on breaking up attacks and winning the ball. If he succeeds in pressing, the opponent’s attack breaks down. To do that, he will rely on his defending skill and stamina.

Powerful forwards, if playing normal (also called power forwards) can put their bodies in the right place, forcing a second chance to shoot and score after a normal chance for your team has been missed. They will need sufficient playmaking and scoring skills to do that. Note that their physical play can result in yellow cards; however, if your player has already been carded, he will tread more carefully in these situations.

You will suffer an overcrowding penalty if you field two or three players having the same combination of specialities and positions, among the following types: technical defensive forwards, powerful normal forwards and powerful defensive inner midfielders. If you field two players of the same type, you will suffer a penalty on their contribution (4% each). If you field three of them, the penalty will be bigger (7.5% each).

Match: Tactics

For each match you can order your team to use a certain tactic. Each tactic has its advantages, but also disadvantages – so choose carefully. There are six tactic types (and normal) available. If you don't specify a tactic you will play "normal".

Tactical skill

How well you master a tactic depends on the tactical skill for that particular tactic. This skill is calculated from different players' skills together with an experience bonus for each involved player.

How effective your tactics are also depends on how good the players on the pitch are. The better the players on the pitch, the higher tactical rating you need to achieve the same efficiency. In practice this means you need better tactical levels when you and your opponent have strong players on the field.


Pressing means that your players put pressure on your opponent and focus more on breaking your opponent's attacks than creating their own. Pressing could be a good option when you feel inferior and want to keep the score down.

Advantage: You can reduce the number of potential chances (for both teams) in a match.

Disadvantage: It will drain the stamina of your players faster than normal.

Relevant Skills: The total defending skill and the total stamina of all your outfield players determine your Pressing tactical skill. If a player has the "Powerful" speciality, his defence skill counts as double. The more tired your players get, the less able they are to put pressure on their opponents.

Whenever a potential chance is foiled by a team using the pressing tactic, it is reported in the match report. You will never find out which team could have benefited from the chance. If both teams play pressing the effect is, on average, doubled. Additionally, when playing against a team focussing on long shots, a pressing team has a chance of preventing a long shot opportunity.


Counter-attacks mean you deliberately let your opponent control the ball, and as soon as they fail with an attack you try to make a fast counter-attack. Playing counter-attacks could be a good option if you have a very good defence and attack (but a bad midfield), and especially in combination with your opponent having an ineffective attack.

Advantage: You can gain additional attacks (you get the chance to counter-attack when your defence has managed to stop an opponent's attack).

Disadvantage: You lose 7% of your midfield capacity.

Relevant Skills: The total sum of your defenders' passing and defending skills determine your CA tactical skill. Passing is twice as important as defending.

Only the team that is not dominating the midfield at the time of a failed attack is able to make use of the advantage of this tactic (and note that you have to be losing midfield before the 7% tactical penalty is applied). If you're dominating the midfield, then you will just suffer the disadvantage. All counter-attacks are reported in match report.

Attack in the middle

Attacking in the middle (AIM) means your team focuses on attacking down the centre of the pitch, at the expense of attacks on the wings. In other words, you trade wing attacks for attacks in the middle.

Advantage: Around 15-30% of your wing attacks will be converted to attacks in the middle.

Disadvantage: Your wing defence (on both sides) gets somewhat worse.

Relevant Skills: The total passing skill of all your outfield players determines your AIM tactical skill.

Whenever an attack is switched from the wings to the middle, it is shown in the match report.

Attack on wings

Attack on wings (AOW) works in the same way as "Attack in the middle", only in reverse; meaning you trade middle attacks for attacks on the wings. As there normally are less attacks in the middle than on the wings, you convert percentage-wise slightly more of them.

Advantage: Around 20-40% of your middle attacks will be converted to wing attacks.

Disadvantage: Your central defence gets somewhat worse.

Relevant Skills: The total passing skill of all your outfield players determines your AOW tactical skill.

Whenever an attack is switched from the middle to the wings, it is shown in the match report.

Play creatively

Play creatively (PC) means players try to make more use of their specialities, and other attributes.

Advantage: You increase the maximum number for special events occurring during the match - for both teams, but your own team will get slightly higher chances to get them (both positive and negative).

Disadvantage: Your team defence gets somewhat worse.

Relevant Skills: PC requires your field players have high passing and experience skill (with the first being the most important). If a field player is also Unpredictable, his contribution to the tactic will be doubled. To make good use of it, a SE-optimized team (i.e. one with many players with specialties, and the right combination of skills) is recommended.

Long shots

When playing long shots (LS) your players are instructed to rather go for a long shot than playing the whole attacking sequence through. In other words, you trade attacks through the middle and on the wing for long shots. A long shot then pits the shooter against the goalkeeper. This can be useful if you have a hard time scoring using your middle/wing attacks, and have decent shooters.

Advantage: The long shots tactic converts up to around 30% of side and middle attacks.

Disadvantage: Your wing and middle attack, as well as your midfield, get a little bit worse.

Relevant skills: Your outfielders' scoring and set pieces skills determine the LS tactical skill. Scoring is three times more important than set pieces.

When an attack has been converted to a long shot, any defending team using the pressing tactic has a chance to steer off the shooting opportunity. If the shot is not steered off, an outfielder (inners and wingers are twice as likely) takes the shot. The quality of the shot depends on the appointed shooter's scoring and set pieces skills, and then the goalkeeper can attempt to save the shot using his goalkeeping and set pieces skills. For both shooter and keeper: A bit of both skills is needed, and it's better to have some of both skills than much of one.

All long shots are reported in the match report, including any missed or saved opportunities.


As mentioned in the lineup chapter; if one of your players gets injured, the substitute for that position will enter the pitch automatically. But you can also set up preconditioned substitutions.

Preconditioned substitutions

You can in advance set up substitutions for a match, either for making that master-mind tactical move or just to swap a tired player for a fresh one. You can for example change a forward for an extra defender to secure your lead in a game, or swap a defender for a forward if you're down. You can also choose to change the individual player order for a player.

Adding a preconditioned substitution

To add a substitution you go to the "Subs/Orders" tab in the match order form. You pick the player you want to leave the pitch and the substitute who will enter. You then decide the conditions of the substitution. You can set up the substitution to happen after a certain minute, and/or depending on the standings in the game by displaying the "advanced options". Moreover, in the advanced options you can also add a condition if one of your (or your opponent's) players gets a red card and change the player's position.

Adding a behaviour change

You add behaviour changes in the "Subs/Orders" tab too. Similar to adding a substitution you pick the player in mind and then add the conditions for when you want him to change behaviour.

You can add five player orders

You may add up to five different player orders (substitutions and behaviour changes). But remember, the referee will not let you make more than three substitutions in a match.

Orders are carried out when the conditions are met

All your player orders will be carried out in the match as soon as all the conditions set before the match is met. If the condition isn't met, the order will not be carried out. If you order a substitution in the 65th minute at any standing, the substitution will be carried out in the 65th minute. If you order a substitution in the 70th minute if you're in the lead, the substitution will be carried out at any time after the 70th minute when/if the condition is met. So if you get into the lead in the 80th minute, your substitution will be carried out first then.

If you set up two orders for the 70th minute, one if you're in the lead and the other if you're in the lead by more than one, and is in the lead with 3-0 when that time comes – both orders will be issued.

Please note: If you have set up two orders with the same conditions (match minute and result, for example) they will NOT be executed at the exact same moment but in the order they were created.

After the match you can see (but not your opponent) a list over all your player orders via a link on the star rating page, together with information when they were issued or why they weren't issued.

You can't react on injuries

It's not possible to set up any conditions for injuries. If one of your players gets injured during a match, the automatic system deals with it. This also means that an injury can mess up your substitution plans, just like in real life football.


Managing a football team is not only about training and tactics, it's about psychology as well. Your team has to want to win and they have to believe in themselves. Your team psychology affects your match results, and in return your match results also affect your team psychology.

Team spirit

The atmosphere at your club has a great influence over the performance of your team. Team spirit affects your midfield ratings, and the higher team spirit you have, the better your midfield will perform. This, in turn determines the amount of ball possession you will get. Team spirit itself can be affected by a lot of things, but in particular your coach's leadership, the team attitude you set for each match, transfers and psychologist.


Your players have to believe in themselves to perform well, and a team with low confidence has trouble putting their opportunities away. High confidence is normally a good thing, but if it gets too high players may underestimate weaker teams (see below for more info). Team confidence is reflected in the attack sector ratings. Confidence is largely dependent on the results of previous games, but having a psychologist and a coach with high leadership is also known to boost it.

Team attitude

Before each competitive match you tell your squad how important the match is. Your team attitude setting affects how much ball possession you will get. You have three alternatives:

Match of the Season: Your players will do anything to win this one. However, directly after the match the team spirit will fall, which means your players will not perform at their best for the following matches.

Normal: The players perform as usual.

Play it cool: Your players are instructed to take it easy, as there are other more important games to focus on later. Directly after the match, team spirit will increase and your players will perform better in the next matches.

Player personality

All players have a personality. Dishonest and aggressive players tend to get booked and sent off more often. Leadership is important for your appointed team captain and for your coach.

Psychological match events

The way a match unfolds can impact the behaviour of the players beyond the instructions laid out by the coach. Such psychological events can have big impact on a specific match, but they do not by themselves affect the team spirit or confidence of future matches. A team that gains a lead of two goals in a match will automatically start to lose its attacking momentum and to focus more on defence. This effect will further increase as the lead is extended: each goal increase in the goal difference decreases attack by 9% and increases defence by 7.5%. Each goal reduction in the goal difference reverses the previous effect. There is an upper limit of a goal difference of 8, after which the team’s ratings will stop changing.

In some situations, teams are able to withstand this psychological effect. If the team has been given “Match of the Season” instructions, they won’t back down even when in a large lead. The same goes if the team plays a final in the National Cup, the World Cup or the Hattrick Masters and on the last series round of the season.

Moreover, a team performing unusually badly in the first half might get a telling off from the coach during the break, and pull themselves back together.


Whenever you're facing a team in a worse position than you and your confidence is strong or better; you may underestimate your opponent and play below your normal capacity. The risk of underestimating your opponent is dependent on the points and position difference between the teams, your confidence level and your team attitude for the match, with the risk being greater when the difference between the teams is bigger and/or confidence is very high. The only way to completely avoid underestimation is to play 'match of the season'.

If you do underestimate your opponent, the points difference, confidence level, team attitude and whether you are home or away decides the exact amount of underestimation. Depending on the score you may recover somewhat at half time. You'll see a full recovery if you're behind, 2/3 in the case of a draw and 1/3 if you have a narrow one goal lead.

Note that underestimation can only happen in league matches, but not in the first three rounds.


The transfer list is where you acquire new players and try to sell those players you don't want to keep. You are allowed a maximum of 50 players at any time. The bid page gives you an overview over all the players you're either selling or bidding on. It also shows any transfers of former players from which you will receive money.

Selling a player

To sell a player you place him on the transfer list, which you do from the page of that particular player. You choose what price you're asking for him and he is placed on the transfer list. To get an idea of the player's value, you can use the Transfer Compare feature, and we would always suggest listing at a realistic price. A player however needs to have played at least one game for your team to be transfer listed, and you can't transfer list a player more times than he has played games for your team. This restriction does not apply to players promoted from your youth team, or to players that were on your team when you first became manager. The player will be on the transfer list three days before going to the club that has offered the most, provided somebody has bid for him. A sold player disappears off to his new club after the deadline expires, unless one of the clubs involved in the transfer is playing a match at the time, in which case he will arrive as soon as the match finishes. If a buyer is not found he will stay at your club. Remember, once you transfer list a player you cannot change your mind and remove him from the list. However, if you decide you need the player after all, you always have the option to buy him again yourself!

Buying a player

To buy a player you visit the player market, the transfer list, under the Club menu, via the World menu or via the transfer search icon in the top right corner. You search for what kind of player you want and to make an offer you enter the page of the player by clicking on his name. You must raise the bid by 1 000 US$ or 2%, whichever is greater. If there is no current bid on the player you can bid the asking price, as long as this is equal to or greater than 1 000 US$. Note that the sum of your bids plus the wages of the players you are bidding on (you always pay a player's first salary immediately after the purchase) cannot put you more than 200 000 US$ into debt.

You may bid on a player right up until the deadline. If someone places an offer less than 3 minutes before the deadline, the deadline will be extended for another 3 minutes right on top of the point in time that the offer was made.

A great help when buying players is the information concerning his skills, personality etc. You can also use the 'Transfer Compare' to see what a similar player has recently been sold for on the market.


Autobidding works in the same way as a normal bid would do. If you place a maximum bid the system will automatically bid for you when needed, always raising the bid by the lowest possible amount (2% or a minimum of 1 000 US$).

You can change (either increase or decrease) your maximum bid at any time, but you can't remove your current bid. Your maximum bid is only visible to you personally, other managers can only see your current bid.

You can have one active maximum bid at a time. If your maximum bid has been reached, it does not count as an autobid anymore and you can set another maximum bid as needed.

For some special cases (such as when two teams make the same autobid or when two autobidders are battling against each other) we have built in some smart logic, here are some examples to help explain this logic.

The agent, the mother club and transfer fees

Placing a player on the transfer list costs 1 000 US$. After the completed deal the player's agent, mother club, and previous club will all take their cut of the sale price. On the player page you can always see how much you will keep if you sell a player. Here are the basics:

How much the agent takes depends on how long the player has been in your team.

The mother club always takes 2% of the selling price. When you're the mother club you always receive 2% each time that player is sold.

The previous club fund always takes 3% of the selling price. When you're the previous club the money you receive depends on how many matches the player played for your team.

See these tables for more info.

When you sell a youth player you are not considered the previous club. But the next time he's sold you are considered previous club, provided he has played at least one match for your senior team.

Transfers may affect team spirit

Whenever you sell or buy a player you risk a drop in team spirit. The risk increases when you sell a nice player and when you buy a nasty player. There is no risk of a team spirit drop if you sell a youth player within 6 days of him joining the senior squad.

Server shutdowns

Transfer deadlines can be extended (in the fairest possible way) in case of server shutdowns. Also keep in mind that the server might be down just as the deadline approaches. A transfer is only completed once the new player arrived at his new club and may until then still be subject to an extension of the deadline when interruptions occur.

You'll be taking a chance by waiting until the last minute before making your move. It is advised to transferlist your players at a price you think is reasonable, as you else may risk selling your player at a lower price than you have hoped for, in order to avoid any disappointment because of an unexpected server down.

Fair Play in the Transfer Market

Good players and money are key aspects of Hattrick, which makes it very important that no team benefits from abnormal activities in the transfer market. This means that buying players at inflated prices is prohibited, and so is any activity that is designed to give a team a financial benefit of any kind. Only the player's attributes which have an influence on the game, such as skills, age, uniqueness and NT/U21 potential, play a role in determining his market value.

The GameMasters are fully authorised to cancel or adjust abnormal transfer prices, hand out fines to teams or even ban the users involved. If you have received a clearly inflated bid on your own player from someone, then please contact the GMs immediately. To contact a GM, please visit our contact page.

Youth players

Youth players

You can acquire new players for your regular squad by recruiting youth players. This can be done in two different ways:

  • Recruiting a player from the outside directly into your senior squad by using your scouting network.
  • Starting a youth academy, recruiting talents and developing them. You can play matches against other youth teams in private or public leagues, and eventually promote your talents to the regular team.

Promoting a random player from the outside to your senior squad is a simple and effective way to acquire new players. Running a youth academy is more challenging, but may also be a lot more fun.

You can only use one system at a time. If you are running a Youth Academy, you cannot promote a youth player from the scouting network. However, your academy costs also counts as scouting network investments, making it swifter to get your scouting network up to speed if you decide to close your academy and use the scouting network instead.

Scouting network

You can acquire a new player each week by sending your scouts out to find a new player for the senior squad. The better the scouting network is, the better the chances of the scout succeeding. You don't have any options on what kind of player you'll get, apart from choosing between a goalkeeper or an outfield player. Don't count on receiving top notch players each week. Most players the scouts recommend won't even be suitable for the reserve team. If you have one or two of them moving directly up into the team you should be satisfied - think about how things work in reality!

Most clubs put a lot of money into their scouting network, but there are also those who spend less money or none at all, buying reinforcements from the transfer market instead. However, if you do decide to build up your scouting infrastructure, be prepared that it might take some time before your investment pays off with reasonably able players. You may find there's little point in using the network if your scouting network status is "poor", for instance.

Every week you're allowed to make a large (20 000 US$), medium (10 000 US$), or small (5 000 US$) investment into your scouting network. Many small investments are more efficient than a few large ones. In other words, it's wise to make long term plans - if you're willing to invest a lot of future funds into increasing scouting activity, large investments can be a way to get results quickly. If you want to build up a decent structure gradually, without spending too much money, make a small investment each week. If you don't maintain regular funding to upkeep your scouting network at a given level, the structure will deteriorate quite rapidly. Once the level of the scouting network has dropped, it will take a long time to raise again.

You're only able to promote one young player per week. If you don't change the amount, the amount invested the previous week will be used.

It'll cost the club 2 000 US$ to promote a junior.

Information on your youth squad activities can be found in the "My Club" menu, under the "Youth team" header. This is also where you enter the amount of money you want invested into the scouting network, and where you can find a player using the network each week.

Youth Academy

Having a youth academy means you will actively manage your youth team. You hire scouts, design the training and decide the lineup and tactics. Your youth team will compete in a youth league of your choice; you can for example play in a league together with your friends or colleagues. Every three weeks your youth team can also play friendlies against other youth teams in the world.

Starting up a youth academy

You activate your youth academy from the "My club" menu, under "Youth team, Overview" caption. You will get one trainer and one scout assigned to the team. Any other youth funding must first be reduced to zero before this is possible. You will also get some youth players immediately to allow your youth team to play matches right away. However, those players are randomly picked boys from a local school and far from talented.

The youth league

Your youth team joins a youth league of your choice, or you can choose to create your own. A youth league can have 4, 6, 8, 12 or 16 teams, and the league can be private (the creator of the league invites people to the league) or public (free for anyone to join). The league creator can also choose when the league matches should be played. Once a league is filled with teams it starts automatically.

The scouts

When you activate your youth academy you will immediately get a youth scout assigned to the team. You choose which region he should look in for talent, and you may also tell him to look for a specific kind of player.If you tell him to look for a specific kind of player (for example wingers) he will offer you such a player most of the time, but the players will in general be worse.

You may also hire additional scouts if you want, but you cannot have more than three scouts (and not less than one).Once a week, each scout will make you a player offer when you call him.

If you have more than one scout, you can also get a second offer (and a third if you've got three scouts) if you say no to the first one. But remember, if you choose to turn the first offer down you will never be able to reverse that decision. Once you've said no to an offer, it's definite.

The players

Your youth academy can host a maximum of 18 players at the same time. Players joining your youth academy will be 15-16 years old. Most of their skills are yet to be discovered, so you will not see all their skills or personalities like you do for senior players. To explore your players you have got to try them out in different positions on the pitch, to see where they play the best. To your aid you have the star rating, the scout's comments and the trainer's report. Through training you will also be able to reveal their skills, more info about this in the training section. Additional hints are also to be found in the match report.


Once every week your youth team plays a league match and every third week you will also have the opportunity to play a friendly game. You place your orders in advance and choose the tactic you want to play exactly as you do for your senior squad. If no order is placed, or if the lineup is incomplete, the boys will fill the lineup themselves. They will nominate a keeper first, then fill open defender slots (max 5), followed by midfield and wingers (max 5), and finally forwards (max 3).


Youth players can focus on two types of training at the same time, one primary and one secondary. The primary training has more effect than the secondary. You can choose to train the same thing (for example defending) as both primary and secondary training, but the training effect will be bigger if you choose two different training types.

Youth players receive training from both league games (full effect) and friendly games (smaller effect). Training for youth players is calculated per match, so they can receive training twice (and sometimes even thrice) the same week. You need to give your training instructions before the game starts. The effect of training appears after the game is finished. Right after the end of the match your trainer will give you a report about what has happened in the team, with a lot of good hints about the players' progress. You may also get the chance to reveal skills:

For your primary skill training, your coach will inform you about the current skill level for one player who's played at least 44 min in a trainable position (i.e. receiving more than very small effect). The same goes for your secondary skill training, but in this case he will inform you about the maximum potential in that skill instead of the current level. A player potential report will not be shown if that player hits his maximum trainable skill level the same week, in such a case the coach will report that the player can no longer continue training that particular skill.

Note that you do not receive a report for the secondary training if you train the same as the primary training. If all players in a trainable position have had their skills revealed, your coach is naturally not able to give you a report of this kind. Also, if you have less than 8 players on the pitch when the match ends, you will not get any skills revealed.

Additionally, your coach will normally report one of the three players with the most potential (highest maximum skill level) in a non-trained skill.

Promotion to the senior team

Each week you can promote a youth player to your senior squad. A youth player must at least be 17 years old and have been a member of your youth academy for at least a season (112 days) before you can promote him. As always, you can never have more than 50 players on your senior team. Once a player reaches 19 years old, he will no longer be able to play in matches for your youth team. He does not have to leave the youth squad, but you will not see him on the pitch again until you promote him to the main team.

The costs

When you start a youth academy you pay a one-time registration fee of 5 000 US$ out of your Club temporary costs. Running a youth academy with one scout costs 10 000 US$ per week and each additional scout costs 5 000 US$. You will also pay an additional 5 000 US$ as a signing bonus in the first week of hiring a new scout. The weekly costs for the Academy will be listed as "Youth expenses" in your weekly financial report. The academy does not have any other staff, they rely on their parents taking care of transport, bruises, injuries etc - which they do without any additional cost. At the same time youth academies have no income either, the only spectators are usually just parents and friends to the youth players.

Promoting an academy player to your senior squad costs 2 000 US$.

Apart from that the only additional cost you will get is if you tell your scout to search for players in another region, then you might have to pay for his plane ticket.

Closing the academy

If you want to deactivate your youth academy you can do that in between youth seasons or if your youth team is not a member of any youth league. You must keep your youth team for at least six weeks though. You can also restart your youth academy, even during an academy season, by using the "Restart youth team" feature on your Youth team overview page. However, this action is irreversible and all your youth players and scouts will be fired, your closed academy will remain in its league and you will have to find a new league for the new academy. This option may be used only once in 3 seasons (48 weeks).

The series system

A Hattrick season is 16 weeks long: 14 league rounds (8 teams in each series who play each other twice), one week for qualifiers and one week with no league activity.

The division tree

The number of divisions can differ from one country to another, but the basic structure is always the same. For instance, the Italian series system looks like this:

1 Division I (Serie A)
4 Division II (II.1, II.2, II.3, II.4)
16 Division III (III.1, III.2, etc. to III.16)
64 Division IV (IV.1, IV.2, etc. to IV.64)
256 Division V (V.1, V.2, etc. to V.256)
1024 Division VI (VI.1, VI.2, etc. to VI.1024)
1024 Division VII (VII.1, VII.2, etc. to VII.1024)
2048 Division VIII (VIII.1, VIII.2, etc. to VIII.2048)
2048 Division IX (IX.1, IX.2, etc. to IX.2048)
4096 Division X (X.1, X.2, etc. to X.4096)
4096 Division XI (XI.1, XI.2, etc. to XI.4096)

Please note that beginning with division VI, the division size doubles at every second level.

Promotion, relegation and qualifiers

If you win your series you will either promote directly to a higher division, or play a qualifier to promote. In divisions II-VI the series winners with the most points promote directly, and the other winners have to play a qualifier. In lower divisions, all winners promote directly and in odd numbered divisions (VII, IX etc) the runners up also promote directly.

Series winners who have to qualify will face a team who finished 5th or 6th in the division above. Out of the series winners that must play a qualification game, the ones with the best records meet the worst 6th place teams, and the ones with the weakest record are pitched against the best 5th place teams. The team from the higher division plays at home. If the series winner wins, the two teams swap places in the league system. If the higher division team wins, they stay in their respective series.

If you end up in 7th or 8th place you will be relegated to the division below (except for in the lowest division). Above the 6th division, the demoted team with the best record (the best team out of those finishing in 7th place) will swap series with the promoted team that has the strongest record. The demoted team with the worst record swaps places with the weakest team that has gained promotion. If you're relegating from the 6th division (or a division below), the demoted team with the best record will swap series with the promoted team that has the worst record.

In divisions VII and IX, teams who finished 3rd and 4th place will play promotion qualifiers and in divisions VIII and X, teams who finished 2nd will play a promotion qualifier.

Switch series in switching window

If your team competes in one of the three bottom divisions in your league, it may be possible to switch from one series to another in the same division. For this to work, there needs to be a free slot in the series you want to join, something that will be shown in the series table during the season break switching window. Also, if you have an additional team under your management, as part of your Supporter membership, your teams can never move to play in the same series.

Bot demotion

At the end of each season all bot teams in division VI and lower will demote to the lowest possible division. The only exception to this is at the very top of division VI, where any bot team that wins the series will either promote or play a qualifier as normal. Bot teams in division V or above are treated in the same way as human owned teams in terms of promotion and relegation.

As these bot teams are demoted, additional teams will be given space in the higher division. These teams will be labelled "Lucky Losers", and will either be teams that lost qualification matches, or in some cases even teams that were demoted directly. It will not be possible to opt out of this draw - the fans, players and sponsors just wouldn't accept such a decision.

If there are more bots above the bottom division than human managers in the bottom division, the system automatically closes the bottom division, and hence makes preparations for it.

League position and ranking

The final standings are determined by, in order of importance, points, goal difference and goals scored. This in turn determines your ranking, which is used to decide who meets who in qualifiers and cup games. The ranking is based on, in order of importance: series level, place in the series, points, goal difference and goals scored. For both ranking and league position: if all of these things are equal a coin toss decides.

Prize money

If you finish first, second, third or in fourth place you will get some prize money. How much you get depends on your place and in which division you play:

Series Level 1 2 3 4
Division I 2 000 000 US$ 1 175 000 US$ 825 000 US$ 500 000 US$
Division II 1 350 000 US$ 1 050 000 US$ 750 000 US$ 450 000 US$
Division III 1 200 000 US$ 925 000 US$ 675 000 US$ 400 000 US$
Division IV 900 000 US$ 700 000 US$ 500 000 US$ 300 000 US$
Division V 600 000 US$ 475 000 US$ 325 000 US$ 200 000 US$
Division VI 525 000 US$ 400 000 US$ 300 000 US$ 175 000 US$
Other divisions 450 000 US$ 350 000 US$ 250 000 US$ 150 000 US$

There is also a 10 000 US$ bonus paid for having the top scorer in a series. The money is paid out after the last league match of the season. If two players tie for this award, both current owners of the players will receive the award; however, if two of your own players tie, then you only receive one prize.

Promotion bonus

If you are directly promoted to a higher division you get a promotion bonus on top of the prize money. Moreover, promotion will also boost your fan club: you get a 10% increase in fans (similarly, if you demote you will lose 10% of your fans).If you promote "for free”, outside the regular promotion slot, you only get the fan club boost though. Examples of this include bonus promotion due to bot removal and the temporary extra promotion slots available in the Hattrick International league.

Series Level Directly promoted Promoted after qualifier
Division I - -
Division II 500 000 US$ 175 000 US$
Division III 450 000 US$ 150 000 US$
Division IV 400 000 US$ 125 000 US$
Division V 300 000 US$ 100 000 US$
Division VI 200 000 US$ 75 000 US$
Other divisions 175 000 US$ 50 000 US$

The cup system

Participating in one of the Hattrick cups is an exciting challenge for every manager, as well as a good way to gain experience for your players and to earn extra cash for your club. The Hattrick cup system has been designed to offer a meaningful experience for teams at every level. It has also been designed to ensure that every team is guaranteed at least three cup games every season.

Every team in Division 6 and above will get to play in the National Cup. If eliminated early from the National Cup, the team will instead get to participate in a lower tier cup. If your league has more than six divisions, there will also be a Divisional Cup for each division below Division 6. Teams in these divisions (Division 7 and below) will play in their respective Divisional Cup instead of in the National Cup.

If your team is eliminated early from the Divisional Cup you will, as in the National Cup, get the chance to participate in a lower tier cup instead.

Cup fixtures

Cup matches are always played midweek. The first round of the National Cup and Divisional Cup always takes place a few days before your first league match of the season. The Challenger cups consists of teams that have been eliminated from either the National or Divisional Cup, and for this reason the first Challenger cup starts one week after the National Cup and Divisional Cup. There are separate Challenger cups that correspond with the National Cup and with each Divisional Cup. Your first cup opponent and the cup you will play in is announced one week in advance. In coming rounds your next opponent and current cup will be announced shortly after all matches for the current cup round have ended.

Teams that enter a competition in a later round are always seeded to meet the teams that have entered the competition early. If teams entered the competition at the same time, the highest-ranked teams are always seeded to meet the lowest-ranked teams. (In practice this means that if you manage to stay in the National Cup until round 5 or 6, when you enter a Challenger Cup you will be seeded against a team that was eliminated in the National Cup in round 1 or 2, regardless of your regular Cup ranking).

Teams are first ranked by the division they will play in this season, then ranked within a particular division as follows:

1. Active demoted teams
2. Active teams that neither demoted nor promoted
3. Teams that promoted by their own strength
4. Teams that promoted for "free" (replacing a demoted bot)
5. Bots, in case of vacant spots

Teams within each group above are sorted according to the ranking at the end of the last season. The ranking stays the same for the duration of the cup.

The higher-ranked team will always play away until the last six rounds of the Cup, at which point all matches are played at neutral venues. All cup games not settled during normal time go to extra time. If they are not decided then, they go to a penalty shoot-out. For more information on how to select your penalty takers, see the chapter "Lineup: Experience and confusion".

Cup format

The most important cup in every league is the National Cup. This is open to every team in Division 6 and above that has a human manager. Only the very best teams will have a chance to win the National Cup, but any team that progresses far in this competition will be well rewarded.

However, if your team is eliminated early from the National Cup you will get a second chance. If you are eliminated in any of the first six rounds of the National Cup, you will instead gain a place in one of the three National Challenger Cups. Participating in the Challenger cups will still be attractive for your club, but rewards are a lot lower than for the National Cup. If you can, staying in the National Cup should always pay off.

The three Challenger Cups are originally called Emerald, Ruby and Sapphire. The Emerald Cup takes on any team that is eliminated from the National Cup in round 1 or 6. Teams eliminated in rounds 2 and 5 are moved to the Ruby cup. And teams eliminated in rounds 3 and 4 are moved to the Sapphire cup. The three cups run parallel to each other and to the National cup, and one winner will be crowned in each one of them. Please keep in mind that the Challenger Cups may have names that are different from their original ones in some leagues.

Teams that are eliminated in round one of the Emerald Challenger Cup and round one of the Ruby Challenger Cup will gain a place in the Consolation Cup. This Cup does not give any prize money or other perks, but the winner still gets a trophy.

In leagues with more than six divisions Divisional Cups are organised for Division 7 and below. The Divisional Cups follows a similar pattern with one main cup, the three Challenger Cups Emerald, Ruby and Sapphire, as well as one Consolation Cup. The only difference is that the overall prize money is lower.

The size of the Cups is determined by the number of teams that are qualified for the cup and that have human managers. The smallest possible Cup size that still makes room for all qualified human teams will be chosen. Once all human teams are in, the Cup will be filled up with bot teams to complete the starting field.

1. The amount of qualified teams managed by humans is counted
2. The smallest cup size that fits all the teams managed by humans is chosen
3. This Cup is then filled out by the human teams first
4. Then "regular" bots from the league system are used
5. If this is not enough, new bot teams are created for the purpose of the Cup only.

Week National cup Challenger cup
Challenger cup
Challenger cup
Consolation cup
Teams Teams Teams Teams Teams
1 16384
2 8192 8192
3 4096 4096 4096 4096
4 2048 2048 2048 2048 4096
5 1024 1024 1024 2048 2048
6 512 512 1024 1024 1024
7 256 512 512 512 512
8 128 256 256 256 256
9 64 128 128 128 128
10 32 64 64 64 64
11 16 32 32 32 32
12 8 16 16 16 16
13 4 8 8 8 8
14 2 4 4 4 4
15 - 2 2 2 2
16 - - - - -
  • Losing teams in rounds one and six of the National Cup will move on to the the Emerald Challenger Cup.
  • Losing teams in rounds two and five of the National Cup will move on to the Ruby Challenger Cup.
  • Losing teams in rounds three and four of the National Cup will move on to the Sapphire Challenger Cup.
  • Losing teams in round one of the Emerald Challenger Cup and round one of the Ruby Challenger Cup will move on to the Consolation Cup.

Team effects

One important aspect of the Cups is the tactical options that they present. Staying in the Cup for a long time gives you more competitive games, which also means more opportunities to increase confidence and team spirit in preparation for the league. Cup games also give your players more experience, which along with higher ticket sales makes a long cup run even more valuable. However, not all Cups will impact your team in the same way.

Cards and injuries are in full effect in all the cups. If you pick up a card in a cup game, your player may get suspended in a following league game.

Team spirit, confidence & fan mood: Only National Cup and Divisional Cup games will have an effect on these values. Matches played in any other cup behave like a friendly when it comes to the impact on future team spirit, confidence and fan mood.

Experience: The National Cup and Divisional Cup gives the player on the field the double amount of experience compared to a league game. Challenger and Consolation Cup matches gives your players half the experience they would get in a league game.

Cup income

Ticket sales is an important benefit from a successful Cup run. The longer you progress in any Cup, the more spectators will come and thus more revenue will be generated. The National Cup and the Divisional Cups are considerably more attractive to the fans than their corresponding Challenger and Consolation cups. While a National Cup and Divisional Cup game (at least in later rounds) can attract similar attendance to a league match, the other cups are more comparable to friendlies when it comes to attendance. The National Challenger Cups will attract three times as many spectators that an international friendly between the two teams would. The National Consolation Cup will attract twice the number of spectators that an international friendly between the two teams would. The Divisional Challenger Cup will attract twice the number of spectators that an international friendly between the two teams would. The Divisional Consolation Cup will attract 50 % more spectators than what an international friendly between the two teams would.

The home side gets 67% of the crowd revenue and the away side gets 33%. In the last six rounds the teams split the revenue 50%. In general, fans aren't very interested in the first couple of rounds of the cup, but their interest will increase as it goes on. It's also true that the fans of a lower division team will want to see a game against a higher division side, but that is not true the other way around. The best teams in the cup also get some prize money as shown in the table below. There is no top scorer award for the cup.

National cup

Position National cup Challenger cup Consolation cup
Winner 1 500 000 US$ 300 000 US$ -
Runner Up 1 000 000 US$ 150 000 US$ -
Semi final exit 750 000 US$ 100 000 US$ -
Quarter final exit 500 000 US$ 50 000 US$ -
Round of 16 exit 250 000 US$ 25 000 US$ -
Round of 32 exit 200 000 US$ - -
Round of 64 exit 180 000 US$ - -
Round of 128 exit 160 000 US$ - -
Round of 256 exit 140 000 US$ - -
Round of 512 exit 120 000 US$ - -

Divisional cup

Position Divisional cup Challenger cup Consolation cup
Winner 300 000 US$ 150 000 US$ -
Runner Up 150 000 US$ 100 000 US$ -
Semi final exit 100 000 US$ 50 000 US$ -
Quarter final exit 50 000 US$ 25 000 US$ -
Round of 16 exit 25 000 US$ - -


To give all your players training in their right positions, practice games are always an option if you're not playing in the cup. Often it is used to let the reserves play and train, but it can also be a good way to test and train new formations and orders. Or why not challenge your best friend for a matter of honour.

Getting a friendly

The easiest way to get a friendly is to add your team to the friendly pool on the challenge page. Choose what kind of match and opponent you would like, and then the pool will automatically match your team against another team and book a friendly (as soon as you meet the criteria set by a team that matches your criteria).

As long as you are out of the cup, and have not already booked a friendly, you can challenge any opponents that are also without a game. Some teams may be unavailable for challenges due to their preferences or Manager Licence status.

All of your challenges (including teams who have challenged you) are shown on the "Challenges" page. Once a friendly has been arranged, it will appear on the fixtures page, and you can select your team in the normal fashion.

Season break friendlies

During weeks 15 and 16 of the season you will also be able to play friendlies during the weekend as long as you do not have a qualification match.

During this period, challenging someone for a friendly will work a little differently. When making the challenge, a drop down will appear where you can select whether the challenge is for a mid-week or weekend friendly.

The challenge window for weekend matches, regardless of whether they are international or national, will be from Monday 06:00 to Friday 23:59.

Friendly match types

There are two types of friendly games: friendly game (normal) and friendly game (cup rules). With cup rules the match is decided after extra time (and perhaps penalties) if there's a draw after full time.

International friendlies

You can choose to play abroad, or invite a team from another country to your stadium. If you are playing abroad, the game will be played at the stadium's local match time. For example, if you are playing in Portugal, the game will be played at the regular Portuguese Wednesday match time (i.e. 9.45pm Central European Time CET).

Regardless of where you'll be travelling your team will be leaving at 6:00 p.m. (CET) on Tuesday and return by 8:00 a.m. on Thursday. International friendlies must be booked by Tuesday 6:00 p.m. (CET), and you can't book a new friendly at all until your team has returned home on Thursday. If your team didn't play an international friendly, you can start booking an international friendly for the next week at 6:00 a.m. on Thursday.

Each travel abroad will cost you 6 000 US$, but on the other hand international friendlies tend to attract more spectators.


The crowd turnout for a friendly is considerably less than for a competitive game. Friendlies with cup rules attract more than normal friendlies, and international friendlies attract even more.

Confidence and team spirit are not affected, nor are fans or their mood. Moreover, the injury risk isn't reduced just because it's a friendly.

Playing on neutral ground

If you want to play a friendly without either of the teams getting the home team advantage, you can choose to play on neutral ground. But if you play in a stadium in your own region, you will still get the home team advantage (even if you are listed as the away team). The stadium's owner will not earn any money from these friendlies.

No matter where you choose to play, any match played against a foreign team is considered to be an international friendly.


Tournaments is the alternative competition system for Hattrick teams. You can join official ladder tournaments and try to become the 'King of the Hill', or you can play in tournaments that are run by managers themselves.

Note that you can still play regular friendly matches every week even if you play in a tournament.

Own tournaments

You have to be a Gold, Platinum or Diamond Supporter to create a tournament. As a non-Supporter you can only create 'Advanced' tournaments. The creator decides size, name, etc and then invites managers to the tournament. Gold and Platinum Supporters can participate for free in one 'Simple' Tournament at a time, but have to purchase credits for all other tournaments. Others can also join in through Hattrick Gears. Diamond Supporters can also participate in one 'Simple' Tournament and up to 10 tournaments at a time using 'Advanced' option, and will not be charged Credits for participating in them.

When the tournament is full, it will start automatically and a forum for the tournament will be created as well. If a "Simple" tournament is not full 72 hours before the first match should start, the start day will be postponed one week. An "Advanced" tournament will be postponed if it is not full 24 hours before the first match, and the match will be moved to the next possible day.

Simple tournament matches are played on Mondays, whereas advanced tournament matches can be played any time of the week.

Tournament matches (Ladders and others)

Matches are played on neutral grounds and they don't give you any income from spectators (and no new members to your fan club).

All tournament matches use the same match data as regular matches. So your players' current form, skills, experience, injury status etc on the match day will be used. There are two exceptions though: team spirit (and confidence) is set to a fixed value and cards work differently. See below for details.

No effects after match

Tournament matches have no effect on your team or your players after match. Players don't get any training or experience from these matches, nor do matches have any effect on formation experience, team spirit and so on.


All the details you need to know about tournament matches are listed here:

  • Team spirit: Team spirit is set to a fixed level (content) in tournament matches.
  • Team confidence: Confidence is set to a fixed level (wonderful) in tournament matches.
  • Injuries: No injuries will occur in tournament matches, but any injured player in "normal" Hattrick will not be able to play.
  • Cards (own tournaments): Tournaments have their own card status, and have a completely separate system of red / yellow cards from 'normal' Hattrick. As such, any card received in a tournament match will only count for the matches that are part of that tournament. Equally, should a player be red carded in normal Hattrick, he will still be able to play in a tournament match.
  • Cards (Ladders): Cards don't count at all in ladder tournaments.
  • Training: Players don't get any training from tournament matches.
  • Experience: Player don't gain any experience from playing tournament matches.
  • Formations: Your current formation experience in "normal" Hattrick is also used for tournament matches. However, you do not gain any formation experience from tournament matches.

Ladder tournaments

In a ladder your goal is to reach the highest rung and become the 'King of the Hill'. And then stay there for as long as you can. To reach the top you challenge other teams listed above you in the ladder, and if you win you take their place in the ladder.

Challenge rules

Your current position in the ladder affects which teams you are able to challenge.

  • Pos 1-5: Can only be challenged by the team immediately below them in the ladder.
  • Pos 6-15: Can be challenged by teams 1-3 places below them.
  • Pos 16-99: Can be challenged by teams 1-10 places below them.
  • Pos 100-199: Can be challenged by teams 1-50 places below them.
  • Pos 200-1000: Can be challenged by teams 1-100 places below them.
  • Pos 1000-5000: Can be challenged by teams 1-500 places below them.
  • Pos 5000+: Can be challenged by teams 1-1000 places below them.

The challenger pays for the match and challenged teams automatically accept the challenge. The match is played 24 hours after the challenge has been made. If the challenger wins, the Credit will be refunded.

Position changes after match

If you challenge a team and win, you take the position of the team you challenged. The challenged team is moved down 1 position (this also goes for any other teams in between the two teams in the ladder).

Example: Team A is on position 54 and challenges B, currently 47. If A wins, A takes position 47 from B. B is moved down to position 48, and the team that held position 48 is moved down to 49, the team that held position 49 is moved down to 50, and so on.

If you challenge a team and lose, both teams stay in their respective places.

Challenge grace periods

After a match in which you were challenged, other teams can't challenge you for 12 hours (from the start of the match). This gives you a chance to challenge a team yourself and climb the ladder.

After a match in which you were the challenger, you can't challenge another team for 12 hours (from the start of the match). This is to give other teams a chance to challenge you. It is also to prevent scenarios where for example #2 always immediately challenges #1, making it impossible for #3 to challenge #2 and take that position.

National teams

In Hattrick, just like in the real world, there are national teams competing against each other. But in Hattrick the coach of your country's national squad is elected by you! Each Hattrick country has a main national squad, as well as an U21 team featuring players 21 years old or younger. This means each country has two national coaches, both elected by the community. The World Cup format changed in Season 77 (17th January 2021).

National team competitions

The National teams compete against each other in three interconnected tournaments. The continental championships, the Nations Cup and the actual World Cup. The competition cycle spans two seasons. It starts with the continental championships for European, American, African and Asia/Oceania leagues and ends with the World Cup.

The Nations Cup is a lesser tournament for teams that did not reach the World Cup and is played in parallel to the World Cup.

Continental championships

Every National team in Hattrick is guaranteed a place in their continental championship. These continental championships are played in groups of 6 teams. Groups are seeded based on the National Team ranking (see below).

The continental championships have a Round-Robin format (double matches - home away) and last for 10 weeks with quarter finals, semi finals and finals in the last week.

The best 8 teams in every region, based on their position, points, goals difference and goals scored will play quarter, semi finals and finals while the rest of the National Coaches can schedule friendlies on Fridays. The winner will be named continental champion, and is awarded a gold trophy. Silver and bronze trophies are awarded to the teams placed 2nd and 3rd-4th respectively.

World Cup

The World Cup starts at week 13 of the first season and lasts for the rest of season 1 and the entire season 2. It is divided into 5 rounds, followed by semi finals and finals.

96 teams participate in Round 1 in 16 groups of 6 teams in a Round-Robin format. The first 4 of each group will proceed to Round 2, while the rest are eliminated.

Round 2 will have 16 groups of 4 teams in a Round-Robin format and the first 2 of each group will proceed to Round 3.

In Round 3 we have 8 groups with 4 teams where they play one match with every opponent in a neutral venue and the top 2 of each group promotes to Round 4.

Round 4 and round 5 will have 4 and 2 groups respectively with 4 teams. Every team will play against each other once at a neutral arena and the top 2 of each group promotes to the next stage.

Both the semi finals and the final are at neutral venues. The winner of the final is named World champion, and is awarded a gold trophy. Silver and bronze trophies are awarded to the runner-ups.

Before each round the team spirit and team confidence will fully or partially reset to the reset values. For example, if the current team spirit is at level 9 and the reset value is 5 with the 80% reset, your team spirit will be decreased by (9 - 5) * 0.8 = 3.2 levels. Reset and midpoint values for the daily updates, for both Team Spirit and Team Confidences are 5.0.

Nations Cup

Teams that did not manage to qualify for the World Cup will play in the Nations Cup, which takes place alongside the World Cup. This tournament is played in the Swiss format tournament (similar to the Supporter Week Trophy).

This is not merely a consolation tournament, but can be important for smaller teams as the final standing in the Nations Cup is used for the seeding of the next continental championship. At the end of the Nations Cup, during the semi-finals and finals of the World Cup, the top 8 teams will have a knockout tournament and the winner will get a trophy.

During the Nations Cup, players cannot be injured, but cards work as in any other tournament. Formation experience will carry over from Continental Championship, and then be updated as normal after every Nations Cup match.

The winner is awarded the Nations Cup trophy.

World Cup qualification

96 teams progress from the continental championships to the World Cup.

Each continent has their own World Cup slots, which are awarded to the best placed teams in each group of the Continental Championships group stage. As we can see in the table below, Europe has 32 slots, Asia-Oceania 21 slots and Africa and America 12 and 20 each

Continent Total teams World Cup Slots
Europe 48 32 (4 promotions / group)
Asia-Oceania 42 21 (3 promotions / group)
Africa 24 12 (3 promotions / group)
America 30 20 (4 promotions / group)

A number of Wildcards will be awarded for teams that did not qualify directly through the group stage of the Continental Championships. With 11 available Wildcards, the best 22 teams that did not qualify for the World Cup, based on their points, goal difference and goals scored in the group stages in Continental Championships, will be selected for a Wildcard Playoff.

In the Wildcard Playoff, the team with the highest ranking (a ranking based also on previous World Cup results) will be matched against the team with the lowest ranking, and the team with second highest ranking with the team of the second lowest ranking, and so forth. The playoff is played home and away, with a total reset of Team Spirit and Team Confidence before the first match. In case of a tie, the second match will have extra time and penalties.

National team ranking

Each national team has its own ranking which is used as seeding for the Continental Championships groups draw. The last 5 seasons have an impact for this ranking, but the effect is decaying over time which means the oldest performances have less effect on the ranking.

There are 3 factors that affect rankings: the result of each match (M), the importance of the match (I) and how strong the opposing team was (T). Specifically, the formula used to calculate the ranking is as follows: P = M x I x T

Match result (M) Points Match Importance (I) Points
Win 3 World Cup Semi/Finals 4
Draw 1 WC rest of rounds 2.5
Lose 0 Continental Finals 3
Win Penalties 2 Continental rest of matches 2
Lose Penalties 1 Nations Cup 1
Friendlies 0

For the variable T, we subtract the ranking of the opponent team from the number 250.

Then, the final ranking is the average number of points (P) of the last 5 seasons weighted by 100%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 20% with 100% the current season and 20% 4 seasons ago. Rankings are updated after every match.

Continental championship draw

For the Continental championship seeding we use the National Team Ranking to create the draw pots. The first position of each group is always reserved by the top teams, where group 1 will get the top 1 team, group 2 the second team etc Then we have 5 draw pots, one for each position in the group filled with the rest of the teams sorted by their Ranking. For example, in the American Championship, we have 5 groups of 6 teams. The first positions of each group are filled by the top 5 teams based on their Ranking. Then the second position can be filled by teams 6 to 10, third position by teams 11 to 15 etc.During our live draw, we work through all groups, until all pots have been emptied and all groups populated.

World Cup draw

The team ranking form the continental championship will determine the seed of that team in the the World Cup draw. There are 16 groups in the World Cup first round, and the first team for each group is picked automatically. The best European team from the Continental Championships (EU#1 in the table below) will always be the first team picked for Group 1, and the team ranked 8 from the Americas will always be the first team picked in Group 16.

Once one team has been assigned to each group, all other teams are picked using a live draw. The ranking from the continental championship is still very important, but instead of being assigned directly to a group, teams are put into draw pots. If we keep looking at the table below, in the column for “Team 2”, four teams will be put in the first draw pot. These are the teams ranked 8 in Africa, 7 in Africa, 6 in Africa and 5 in Africa. Out of this pot they are assigned as the second team to Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, as decided by the draw. 4 new teams are entered into the second draw pot and drawn for Groups 5, 6, 7 and 8. This process continues until all 6 teams have been chosen for all 16 groups.

The system is broadly deterministic, making sure we can not get all the best teams from the strongest continents in the same group. But at the same time we wanted a random element, so that managers can not already during the continental championship determine how the various groups will look in the World Cup, as this could cause some team to lose games on purpose to get a better draw in the World Cup. It also makes the live draw much more fun.

Group Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5 Team 6
1 EU#1 AFR#8
2 EU#2 AFR#7
3 EU#3 AFR#6
4 EU#4 AFR#5
5 EU#5 AFR#4
6 EU#6 AFR#3
7 EU#7 AFR#2
8 EU#8 AFR#1
9 AME#1 ASO#8
10 AME#2 ASO#7
11 AME#3 ASO#6
12 AME#4 ASO#5
13 AME#5 ASO#4
14 AME#6 ASO#3
15 AME#7 ASO#2
16 AME#8 ASO#1

EU: Europe
AME: America
AFR: Africa
ASO: Asia / Oceania
W: Wildcard slot


Elections are held at the beginning of the season, starting the two days after the World Cup final. Every second season you elect the national coach and every second season you elect the U21 coach. Each coach is elected for 2 seasons, ending his term about a week after the World Cup Final. Note that you will need to have played Hattrick for at least 1 season in order to be able to vote in the National Team elections.

Voting power

You can only vote once in an election. However, this vote may gain extra weight in the final tally. This system of voting power rewards commitment to the game, but the main reason for it is to make it harder to manipulate elections.

If you are a local team, you get your first vote after 1 season in the game. You then gain a second one after 5 seasons in the game, a third one after 10 seasons, and a fourth one after 15 seasons. Local teams can get a total of 4 votes this way.

If you have an additional team in another league (except Hattrick International), you get your first vote after two seasons and a second and final seniority vote after 10 seasons.

All users also get up to two engagement votes, depending on how active their team management have been. We will not explain exactly how these work, to make it harder to manipulate them, but they have been designed to be very easy to achieve for any normally managed team, but very tedious to achieve if you are maintaining a set of fake teams. Please note that as a user, you will not see the exact weight your vote has, we will just explain the principles behind the system.

The national team squad

The national coach picks up to 26 players (from teams with real owners), freely from those players with the right nationality. However, U21 players need to be at least 19 years old and National Team players at least 22 years old. Once picked, the coach can see the same data for the national team players as you do for your own team.

Each national team has their own formation experience and on the start of every continental championship and World Cup, national coaches will have about a week to decide which 6 formations will have formidable experience, while the rest will start from poor. The selection period starts on the elected day up to the Team Spirit and Team Confidence reset day before the first match for continental championships and at Week 12 up to the Team Spirit and Team Confidence reset day at Week 13.

Having a national team player

If one of your players is on the national team, his ability to play for your team will be unaffected. National games and club games are played on separate days, so you can always use him. Matches for the national team will not give your player any training, however, he does run the risk of being injured while playing for the national team.

If your player gets to play a match with the national team there are several benefits for your club:

- You will get a salary reduction of 33% or 40% of the player's salary, depending on whether he is playing in a foreign team or his home country respectively.

- The player gains a lot of experience. The amount of experience they get varies in the match type and in descending order we have the Semi Final and Final of the World cup, the World Cup matches, the continental Quarter, Semi and Finals. The continental championship matches, the Nations Cup and finally the national team friendlies.

- If a player gets injured and has to leave the field in a match for his national team, the club will get a compensation amounting to 100% of his base salary times the estimated number of weeks the injury is expected to last. This is in addition to the regular salary reduction.

Since national team friendlies don’t have the same intensity the injury risk is half of that in regular matches.

Note that you are expected not to undermine national teams through sabotaging your national team player(s). The National Team Administrators, as a last resort, have the discretion to release players to the transfer market in the event of sabotage.

If you consider running for office, or if you just want more information, we recommend you to read the rules for national teams.

World Cup Schedule - Season 1

Wk Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 Elections Voting Elections Voting Elections Voting Elections Voting Elections Voting/Live Draw
Elections Voting Elections Voting
2 Elections
- - - Friendlies - -
3 - - T.S./T.C. Reset 100% reset - C.C. Match 1 - -
4 C.C. Match 2 - - - C.C. Match 3 - -
5 C.C. Match 4 - - - C.C. Match 5 - -
6 - - - - C.C. Match 6 - -
7 - - - - C.C. Match 7 - -
8 - - - - C.C. Match 8 - -
9 - - - - C.C. Match 9 - -
10 - - - - C.C. Match 10 - -
11 - - - - C.C. Quarter Finals - T.S./T.C. Reset 100% reset
(Wildcards only)
12 C.C. Semi FinalsW Match 1 - - - C.C. FinalsW Match 2 - Live Draw
13 - - T.S./T.C. Reset 100% reset - W.C. R1 Match 1 - -
14 W.C. R1 Match 2 - - - W.C. R1 Match 3 - -
15 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 4 - -
16 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 5 - -

World Cup Schedule - Season 2

Wk Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 6 - -
2 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 7 - -
3 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 8 - -
4 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 9 - -
5 - - - - W.C. R1 Match 10 - -
6 - - T.S./T.C. Reset 80% reset - W.C. R2 Match 1 - -
7 W.C. R2 Match 2 - - - W.C. R2 Match 3 - -
8 W.C. R2 Match 4 - - - W.C. R2 Match 5 - -
9 - - - - W.C. R2 Match 6 - -
10 - - T.S./T.C. Reset60% reset - W.C. R3 Match 1 - -
11 W.C. R3 Match 2 - - - W.C. R3 Match 3 - -
12 - - T.S./T.C. Reset 40% reset - W.C. R4 Match 1 - -
13 W.C. R4 Match 2 - - W.C. R4 Match 3 - -
14 - - - - W.C. R5 Match 1 - -
15 W.C. R5 Match 2 - - - W.C. R5 Match 3 - -
16 W.C. Semi Finals - - W.C. Finals - -

C.C.: Continental championship
W.C.: World Cup
W.: Wildcard
T.S.: Team Spirit
T.C.: Team Confidence

Hattrick Masters

The Hattrick Masters is the international tournament for all cup and league winners. It is played for four weeks, starting after round 4 each season. Matches are played at 20.00 Mondays and Thursdays.


256 teams can participate in the Masters and it is played as a straight cup with 8 rounds. The draw for each round is completely randomised, and the matches are played on neutral grounds.

If there are not enough teams to fill up the first round completely, some lucky teams (selected randomly) will skip the first round and join the action in the second round. If any of the cup or league winners have become ownerless (or changed owner), they may not participate in the Masters. If a team wins both league and cup in the same season, they will be the only team from that nation participating in the Masters.

Special tournament rules

There are some special rules that apply to the Masters:

Card and Injuries: Cards do not matter (except red cards in the game, of course), but injuries are recorded as normal.

Team Attitude: Playing "Match of the Season" (MOTS) or "Play it Cool" (PIC) will not lower/raise your team spirit after the match by as much as it would after a regular match. The effect during the match is the same as during a regular match though.

Training: Masters games do not count towards a player's training.

Masters income

The home and the away team split the crowd revenue 50/50. The best teams also get some prize money.

The Hattrick Masters winner gets 800 000 US$, the runner-up gets 400 000 US$ and the two losing semi-finalists each get 200 000 US$. The losing quarter-finalists each get 100 000 US$ and the losing last-sixteen teams each get 50 000 US$.

Additional club

With Supporter Platinum and Diamond you have the opportunity to manage an additional club. You manage this club individually, just as you manage your primary club, which means the additional club has its own separate player squad, stadium, finances, youth team and so on.

Start an additional club

You can start an additional club at any time. Your additional club can play in the same country as your primary club or in another country, as long as there is space available in that country.

Additional club will start with some initial funds (just as any other new club), but owners will not need to do the manager license.

General rules

You can have up to two additional clubs.

You will not be able to make any transfers between your clubs and you also can't buy players where the other team would either receive mother club or previous club money.

Additional club in the same country

Your primary and additional clubs will not be able to play in the same series or meet each other in a qualifier, nor meet each other in the cup (with the exception of the final). Both clubs can play at the same series level, but in different series.

If both clubs are set to play in the top series, the one entering that series last will not be allowed to promote. Instead, the team that would have been demoted to make space for the denied team will keep the place in the series.

If both clubs promote to the top series at the same time, only the primary club will get to promote.

Additional club in another country

The number of additional club spots available for "foreign" managers in a country depends on many clubs are unused in that country, something that depends on how big the country is and how many users are already playing in it.

A minimum of 50% of the clubs in a country are reserved for local users. So, in a league with 168 clubs, at least 84 of them are reserved for local users (and the other 84 slots can be taken by any manager, local or foreign). But if a country is 90% full – the remaining slots will be reserved for local users only.

Switch series in switching window

It's possible for additional clubs to switch series (where possible) in the series switching window in-between seasons, but it's not possible to switch to the series where your other club is playing.


Flags are collected by clubs separately, additional clubs have their own flag collections.

Playing against a additional club rewards flags just as playing any other club would, and the additional club is rewarded flags for its own collection.


Achievements are achieved by the manager, and achievements are thus saved for each user (and not for each club).

Voting in elections

If you have an additional team in another league (except Hattrick International), you get your first vote after two seasons and a second and final seniority vote after 10 seasons.


If your primary club goes bankrupt you will also lose access to your additional club.

If your additional club goes bankrupt you can start a new one 16 weeks after the date you started your previous additional club (so if you've had your additional club for more than 16 weeks you can start a new club immediately).

Close additional club

You can close your additional club at any time. But if you close your additional club, you'll have to wait at least 16 weeks from when you started your previous additional club until you can start a new one. Note that you cannot close your additional team as long as you have players on the transfer list.

Platinum / Diamond subscription expiry

If your Supporter Platinum or Diamond subscription expires you will still be the manager of your additional club for one more week, but after this week you will no longer be able to manage it. 7 weeks after the expiration, the system will disconnect your additional club. If you purchase Supporter Platinum or Diamond again during these 7 weeks you will get access to your additional club again. But if you don't, the club will become ownerless and you will not be able to return to it.

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